Recovery of strain-resolved genomes from human microbiome through an integration framework of single-cell genomics and metagenomics

Koji Arikawa, Keigo Ide, Masato Kogawa, Tatsuya Saeki, Takuya Yoda, Taruho Endoh, Ayumi Matsuhashi, Haruko Takeyama, Masahito Hosokawa*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Obtaining high-quality (HQ) reference genomes from microbial communities is crucial for understanding the phylogeny and function of uncultured microbes in complex microbial ecosystems. Despite improvements in bioinformatic approaches to generate curated metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), existing metagenome binners obtain population consensus genomes but they are nowhere comparable to genomes sequenced from isolates in terms of strain level resolution. Here, we present a framework for the integration of single-cell genomics and metagenomics, referred to as single-cell (sc) metagenomics, to reconstruct strain-resolved genomes from microbial communities at once. Results: Our sc-metagenomics integration framework, termed SMAGLinker, uses single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) generated using microfluidic technology as binning guides and integrates them with metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) to recover improved draft genomes. We compared sc-metagenomics with the metagenomics-alone approach using conventional metagenome binners. The sc-metagenomics approach showed precise contig binning and higher recovery rates (>97%) of rRNA and plasmids than conventional metagenomics in genome reconstruction from the cell mock community. In human microbiota samples, sc-metagenomics recovered the largest number of genomes with a total of 103 gut microbial genomes (21 HQ, with 65 showing >90% completeness) and 45 skin microbial genomes (10 HQ, with 40 showing >90% completeness), respectively. Conventional metagenomics recovered one Staphylococcus hominis genome, whereas sc-metagenomics recovered two S. hominis genomes from identical skin microbiota sample. Single-cell sequencing revealed that these S. hominis genomes were derived from two distinct strains harboring specifically different plasmids. We found that all conventional S. hominis MAGs had a substantial lack or excess of genome sequences and contamination from other Staphylococcus species (S. epidermidis). Conclusions: SMAGLinker enabled us to obtain strain-resolved genomes in the mock community and human microbiota samples by assigning metagenomic sequences correctly and covering both highly conserved genes such as rRNA genes and unique extrachromosomal elements, including plasmids. SMAGLinker will provide HQ genomes that are difficult to obtain using metagenomics alone and will facilitate the understanding of microbial ecosystems by elucidating detailed metabolic pathways and horizontal gene transfer networks. SMAGLinker is available at https://github.com/kojiari/smaglinker. [MediaObject not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Article number202
JournalMicrobiome
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec

Keywords

  • Binning
  • Metagenomics
  • Single-cell genomics
  • Software

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)

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