REFOLDdb: A new and sustainable gateway to experimental protocols for protein refolding

Hisashi Mizutani, Hideaki Sugawara*, Ashley M. Buckle, Takeshi Sangawa, Ken Ichi Miyazono, Jun Ohtsuka, Koji Nagata, Tomoki Shojima, Shohei Nosaki, Yuqun Xu, Delong Wang, Xiao Hu, Masaru Tanokura, Kei Yura

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Background: More than 7000 papers related to "protein refolding" have been published to date, with approximately 300 reports each year during the last decade. Whilst some of these papers provide experimental protocols for protein refolding, a survey in the structural life science communities showed a necessity for a comprehensive database for refolding techniques. We therefore have developed a new resource - "REFOLDdb" that collects refolding techniques into a single, searchable repository to help researchers develop refolding protocols for proteins of interest. Results: We based our resource on the existing REFOLD database, which has not been updated since 2009. We redesigned the data format to be more concise, allowing consistent representations among data entries compared with the original REFOLD database. The remodeled data architecture enhances the search efficiency and improves the sustainability of the database. After an exhaustive literature search we added experimental refolding protocols from reports published 2009 to early 2017. In addition to this new data, we fully converted and integrated existing REFOLD data into our new resource. REFOLDdb contains 1877 entries as of March 17th, 2017, and is freely available at Conclusion: REFOLDdb is a unique database for the life sciences research community, providing annotated information for designing new refolding protocols and customizing existing methodologies. We envisage that this resource will find wide utility across broad disciplines that rely on the production of pure, active, recombinant proteins. Furthermore, the database also provides a useful overview of the recent trends and statistics in refolding technology development.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4
JournalBMC Structural Biology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Apr 24


  • Crystallization
  • Inclusion body
  • Refolding
  • Renaturation
  • Solubilization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology


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