Background: Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was discovered in the Japanese quail brain in 2000 as a hypothalamic neuropeptide that suppresses luteinizing hormone release from cultured quail anterior pituitary. Methods: The authors investigated the existence of mammalian orthologous peptides to GnIH and their physiological functions in the following 19 years of research. Main findings: Mammals have orthologous peptide to GnIH, often described RFamide-related peptide, expressed in the hypothalamus and gonads. Mammalian GnIH may also suppress gonadotropin synthesis and release by suppressing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) synthesis and release in addition to directly suppressing gonadotropin synthesis and release from the pituitary. Mammalian GnIH may also suppress kisspeptin, a stimulator of GnRH, release. Mammalian GnIH is also expressed in the testis and ovary and suppresses gametogenesis and sex steroid production acting in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Thus, mammalian GnIH may act at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to suppress reproduction. GnIH may be involved in the regulation of puberty, estrous or menstrual cycle, seasonal reproduction, and stress responses. Conclusion: Studies suggest that mammalian GnIH is an important neuroendocrine suppressor of reproduction in mammals.
- gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone
- gonadotropin-releasing hormone
- RFamide-related peptide
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Reproductive Medicine
- Cell Biology