The response of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) under time-dependent perturbation is studied. The study focuses on collective excitations at finite temperature and discusses the effect of the Nambu-Goldstone (NG) mode on the system. The response of the first-order deviation from the static case owing to the small time-dependent perturbation with the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov-Popov approximation is formulated. The results show that excitation energy becomes higher because of the NG mode.
|Number of pages||2|
|Journal||Journal of Modern Optics|
|Publication status||Published - 2004 Apr 15|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics