REY-Rich Mud: A Deep-Sea Mineral Resource for Rare Earths and Yttrium

Kentaro Nakamura, Koichiro Fujinaga, Kazutaka Yasukawa, Yutaro Takaya, Junichiro Ohta, Shiki Machida, Satoru Haraguchi, Yasuhiro Kato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This chapter focuses on newly discovered extensive deposits of deep-sea mud containing high concentrations of rare-earth elements and yttrium (REY). The deep-sea REY-rich muds are found in pelagic region of the Pacific Ocean and very recently also in the Indian Ocean. REY-rich muds are characterized by the following five advantages: (1) tremendous resource potential by virtue of their wide distribution, (2) high REY concentrations with significant heavy REE enrichment, (3) a stratiform distribution that allows relatively simple and cost-effective exploration, (4) very low concentrations of radioactive elements such as Th and U, and (5) ease of extraction of REY by acid leaching. These features demonstrate that the REY-rich mud could constitute a highly promising REY resource for the future. A system to mine REY-rich muds is also presented. This system can be developed based on a system developed and tested for sulfide-rich muds in the Red Sea and manganese nodules in the Pacific Ocean, although pressurized air-lift system will be needed to lift REY-rich muds from very deep water.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)79-127
Number of pages49
JournalUnknown Journal
Volume46
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Yttrium
yttrium
Mineral resources
mud
mineral resource
Rare earth elements
Rare earths
deep sea
resources
rare earth element
rare earth elements
minerals
Pacific Ocean
Radioactive Elements
Radioactive elements
Manganese nodules
Red Sea
Indian Ocean
nodules
manganese nodule

Keywords

  • Acid leaching
  • Apatite
  • Development system
  • HREE enrichment
  • Pacific Ocean
  • Rare-earth elements and yttrium
  • REY-rich mud

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Nakamura, K., Fujinaga, K., Yasukawa, K., Takaya, Y., Ohta, J., Machida, S., ... Kato, Y. (2015). REY-Rich Mud: A Deep-Sea Mineral Resource for Rare Earths and Yttrium. Unknown Journal, 46, 79-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63260-9.00268-6

REY-Rich Mud : A Deep-Sea Mineral Resource for Rare Earths and Yttrium. / Nakamura, Kentaro; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Yasukawa, Kazutaka; Takaya, Yutaro; Ohta, Junichiro; Machida, Shiki; Haraguchi, Satoru; Kato, Yasuhiro.

In: Unknown Journal, Vol. 46, 2015, p. 79-127.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nakamura, K, Fujinaga, K, Yasukawa, K, Takaya, Y, Ohta, J, Machida, S, Haraguchi, S & Kato, Y 2015, 'REY-Rich Mud: A Deep-Sea Mineral Resource for Rare Earths and Yttrium', Unknown Journal, vol. 46, pp. 79-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63260-9.00268-6
Nakamura, Kentaro ; Fujinaga, Koichiro ; Yasukawa, Kazutaka ; Takaya, Yutaro ; Ohta, Junichiro ; Machida, Shiki ; Haraguchi, Satoru ; Kato, Yasuhiro. / REY-Rich Mud : A Deep-Sea Mineral Resource for Rare Earths and Yttrium. In: Unknown Journal. 2015 ; Vol. 46. pp. 79-127.
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