Risk factors for term small for gestational age infants in women with low prepregnancy body mass index

Hiroko Watanabe, Kazuko Inoue, Masako Doi, Momoyo Matsumoto, Kayoko Ogasawara, Hideoki Fukuoka, Yasushi Nagai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aim: The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between low maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) less than 18.5 kg/m2 and the incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) infants. Material & Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The women with BMI of less than 25.0 kg/m2 who gave birth to single term infants (37-42 weeks) at clinics and hospitals in the Tokyo metropolitan area between 2003 and 2004 were analyzed for risk factors for SGA. Results: Five hundred and seventy-two women were underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) and 2708 (75.1%) were normal (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25.0 kg/m2). Birthweight, analyzed by multiple regression analysis, was highly related (P < 0.05) to gestational age, maternal age, parity, prepregnancy BMI, maternal weight gain and maternal smoking status. Women with a less than 9 kg weight during pregnancy were 1.8 times (confidence interval [CI], 1.6-2.2) more likely to give birth to an SGA infant compared with women who gained 9-12 kg. Maternal smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day was associated with an increased risk of having an SGA infant (odds ratio [OR], 2.5; CI, 1.8-3.5). Women with prepregnancy BMI less than 21.0 kg/m2 were associated with an increased risk of having an SGA infant (OR, 1.6; CI, 1.3-2.2 for BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, and OR, 1.4; CI, 1.2-1.7 for 18.5 ≤ BMI ≤ 21.0 kg/m2). Conclusion: We conclude that the detrimental effect of low prepregnancy BMI in Japanese women on birthweight and incidence of SGA infants. Our findings suggest that appropriate maternal BMI at conception followed by adequate weight gain during pregnancy may have a substantial influence on reducing the SGA infants and increasing the birthweight.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)506-512
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Volume36
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Jun
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Small for Gestational Age Infant
Body Mass Index
Mothers
Confidence Intervals
Odds Ratio
Gestational Age
Weight Gain
Smoking
Surrogate Mothers
Parturition
Pregnancy
Tokyo
Thinness
Incidence
Maternal Age
Parity
Tobacco Products
Cross-Sectional Studies
Regression Analysis

Keywords

  • Maternal smoking status
  • Maternal weight gain
  • Prepregnancy BMI
  • Small for gestational age infant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Cite this

Risk factors for term small for gestational age infants in women with low prepregnancy body mass index. / Watanabe, Hiroko; Inoue, Kazuko; Doi, Masako; Matsumoto, Momoyo; Ogasawara, Kayoko; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Nagai, Yasushi.

In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, Vol. 36, No. 3, 06.2010, p. 506-512.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Watanabe, Hiroko ; Inoue, Kazuko ; Doi, Masako ; Matsumoto, Momoyo ; Ogasawara, Kayoko ; Fukuoka, Hideoki ; Nagai, Yasushi. / Risk factors for term small for gestational age infants in women with low prepregnancy body mass index. In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. 2010 ; Vol. 36, No. 3. pp. 506-512.
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AU - Fukuoka, Hideoki

AU - Nagai, Yasushi

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AB - Aim: The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between low maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) less than 18.5 kg/m2 and the incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) infants. Material & Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The women with BMI of less than 25.0 kg/m2 who gave birth to single term infants (37-42 weeks) at clinics and hospitals in the Tokyo metropolitan area between 2003 and 2004 were analyzed for risk factors for SGA. Results: Five hundred and seventy-two women were underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) and 2708 (75.1%) were normal (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25.0 kg/m2). Birthweight, analyzed by multiple regression analysis, was highly related (P < 0.05) to gestational age, maternal age, parity, prepregnancy BMI, maternal weight gain and maternal smoking status. Women with a less than 9 kg weight during pregnancy were 1.8 times (confidence interval [CI], 1.6-2.2) more likely to give birth to an SGA infant compared with women who gained 9-12 kg. Maternal smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day was associated with an increased risk of having an SGA infant (odds ratio [OR], 2.5; CI, 1.8-3.5). Women with prepregnancy BMI less than 21.0 kg/m2 were associated with an increased risk of having an SGA infant (OR, 1.6; CI, 1.3-2.2 for BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, and OR, 1.4; CI, 1.2-1.7 for 18.5 ≤ BMI ≤ 21.0 kg/m2). Conclusion: We conclude that the detrimental effect of low prepregnancy BMI in Japanese women on birthweight and incidence of SGA infants. Our findings suggest that appropriate maternal BMI at conception followed by adequate weight gain during pregnancy may have a substantial influence on reducing the SGA infants and increasing the birthweight.

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