Room-temperature direct bonding of graphene films by means of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) / vapor-assisted method

Ajayan Mano, Akitsu Shigetou, Jun Mizuno, Shuichi Shoji

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A room temperature direct bonding between graphene thin films was realized by using vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) / vapor-assisted surface modification method at atmospheric pressure. In this paper, we examined the bonding between graphene mono layers and multi layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that, in the ambient air, the graphene surfaces were easy to be oxidized, which resulted in the formation of CO2 (C-O 286.6eV) and organic hydrocarbons. Additionally, chlorine from the graphene production process was found on the outmost surface. For such oxidized and adsorbed surfaces, the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) treatment was found highly effective to modify the chemical binding condition. The VUV irradiation eliminated the oxide and contaminations, and changed the binding condition of carbon. For the monolayer graphene surface, the oxidized site was almost completely removed and C-C bond, which has the binding energy of 284.4 eV, became dominant. For the multilayer surface, although C-O bonds remained, the atomic weight percentage of carbon increased. Raman spectroscopy study results showed that the intensity of defect, which was indicated by D-band, decreased both on the monolayer and multilayer. Moreover, the intensity of 2D band, which was attributable to graphene formation, became stronger; the VUV irradiation turned out effective to modify the crystalline structure to create graphene outmost surface layer. After the VUV irradiation, the surfaces were exposed to the water vapor to make the surface hydrophilic, because molecular water can adsorbe on the hydrophilic carbon surfaces, create hydrogen bond between on the moment of contact, and make good adhesion between the surfaces. XPS observations indicated that the bridging layers including molecular layers, which were assigned as CHO (286.2eV) and/or COOH (288.2eV), were created by water exposure. Raman observations confirmed that the intensity ratio of D band and G band (ID/I G) decreased and the ratio of 2D band and G band (I 2D/IG) increased apparently on the monolayer and multilayer, respectively. This inferred that the defect decreased and the disordered graphene layer was reduced on the outmost surface, and the quantitative quality of graphene was improved due to the water exposure. Similarly, the peak shifts showed that, both on the monolayer and multilayer, the crosslink between carbon and hydrogen became closer. Without using chemical process, the simple VUV irradiation combined with the water exposure turned out highly effective to make tight bond between graphene surfaces without degrading the quantitative quality.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2014 International Conference on Electronics Packaging, ICEP 2014
PublisherIEEE Computer Society
Pages652-657
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)9784904090107
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Event2014 International Conference on Electronics Packaging, ICEP 2014 - Toyama
Duration: 2014 Apr 232014 Apr 25

Other

Other2014 International Conference on Electronics Packaging, ICEP 2014
CityToyama
Period14/4/2314/4/25

Fingerprint

Graphite
Graphene
Vapors
Vacuum
Temperature
Monolayers
Multilayers
Carbon
Irradiation
Water
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Defects
Chlorine
Steam
Hydrocarbons
Binding energy
Oxides
Water vapor
Atmospheric pressure
Surface treatment

Keywords

  • bonding technology
  • defects
  • direct bonding
  • Graphene
  • humidity sensitivity
  • interconnects
  • packaging
  • room temperature
  • VUV
  • water expose

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

Cite this

Mano, A., Shigetou, A., Mizuno, J., & Shoji, S. (2014). Room-temperature direct bonding of graphene films by means of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) / vapor-assisted method. In 2014 International Conference on Electronics Packaging, ICEP 2014 (pp. 652-657). [6826761] IEEE Computer Society. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEP.2014.6826761

Room-temperature direct bonding of graphene films by means of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) / vapor-assisted method. / Mano, Ajayan; Shigetou, Akitsu; Mizuno, Jun; Shoji, Shuichi.

2014 International Conference on Electronics Packaging, ICEP 2014. IEEE Computer Society, 2014. p. 652-657 6826761.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Mano, A, Shigetou, A, Mizuno, J & Shoji, S 2014, Room-temperature direct bonding of graphene films by means of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) / vapor-assisted method. in 2014 International Conference on Electronics Packaging, ICEP 2014., 6826761, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 652-657, 2014 International Conference on Electronics Packaging, ICEP 2014, Toyama, 14/4/23. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEP.2014.6826761
Mano A, Shigetou A, Mizuno J, Shoji S. Room-temperature direct bonding of graphene films by means of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) / vapor-assisted method. In 2014 International Conference on Electronics Packaging, ICEP 2014. IEEE Computer Society. 2014. p. 652-657. 6826761 https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEP.2014.6826761
Mano, Ajayan ; Shigetou, Akitsu ; Mizuno, Jun ; Shoji, Shuichi. / Room-temperature direct bonding of graphene films by means of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) / vapor-assisted method. 2014 International Conference on Electronics Packaging, ICEP 2014. IEEE Computer Society, 2014. pp. 652-657
@inproceedings{5b0f0b4a134c477eb78db04f1d7bf20f,
title = "Room-temperature direct bonding of graphene films by means of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) / vapor-assisted method",
abstract = "A room temperature direct bonding between graphene thin films was realized by using vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) / vapor-assisted surface modification method at atmospheric pressure. In this paper, we examined the bonding between graphene mono layers and multi layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that, in the ambient air, the graphene surfaces were easy to be oxidized, which resulted in the formation of CO2 (C-O 286.6eV) and organic hydrocarbons. Additionally, chlorine from the graphene production process was found on the outmost surface. For such oxidized and adsorbed surfaces, the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) treatment was found highly effective to modify the chemical binding condition. The VUV irradiation eliminated the oxide and contaminations, and changed the binding condition of carbon. For the monolayer graphene surface, the oxidized site was almost completely removed and C-C bond, which has the binding energy of 284.4 eV, became dominant. For the multilayer surface, although C-O bonds remained, the atomic weight percentage of carbon increased. Raman spectroscopy study results showed that the intensity of defect, which was indicated by D-band, decreased both on the monolayer and multilayer. Moreover, the intensity of 2D band, which was attributable to graphene formation, became stronger; the VUV irradiation turned out effective to modify the crystalline structure to create graphene outmost surface layer. After the VUV irradiation, the surfaces were exposed to the water vapor to make the surface hydrophilic, because molecular water can adsorbe on the hydrophilic carbon surfaces, create hydrogen bond between on the moment of contact, and make good adhesion between the surfaces. XPS observations indicated that the bridging layers including molecular layers, which were assigned as CHO (286.2eV) and/or COOH (288.2eV), were created by water exposure. Raman observations confirmed that the intensity ratio of D band and G band (ID/I G) decreased and the ratio of 2D band and G band (I 2D/IG) increased apparently on the monolayer and multilayer, respectively. This inferred that the defect decreased and the disordered graphene layer was reduced on the outmost surface, and the quantitative quality of graphene was improved due to the water exposure. Similarly, the peak shifts showed that, both on the monolayer and multilayer, the crosslink between carbon and hydrogen became closer. Without using chemical process, the simple VUV irradiation combined with the water exposure turned out highly effective to make tight bond between graphene surfaces without degrading the quantitative quality.",
keywords = "bonding technology, defects, direct bonding, Graphene, humidity sensitivity, interconnects, packaging, room temperature, VUV, water expose",
author = "Ajayan Mano and Akitsu Shigetou and Jun Mizuno and Shuichi Shoji",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1109/ICEP.2014.6826761",
language = "English",
isbn = "9784904090107",
pages = "652--657",
booktitle = "2014 International Conference on Electronics Packaging, ICEP 2014",
publisher = "IEEE Computer Society",

}

TY - GEN

T1 - Room-temperature direct bonding of graphene films by means of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) / vapor-assisted method

AU - Mano, Ajayan

AU - Shigetou, Akitsu

AU - Mizuno, Jun

AU - Shoji, Shuichi

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - A room temperature direct bonding between graphene thin films was realized by using vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) / vapor-assisted surface modification method at atmospheric pressure. In this paper, we examined the bonding between graphene mono layers and multi layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that, in the ambient air, the graphene surfaces were easy to be oxidized, which resulted in the formation of CO2 (C-O 286.6eV) and organic hydrocarbons. Additionally, chlorine from the graphene production process was found on the outmost surface. For such oxidized and adsorbed surfaces, the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) treatment was found highly effective to modify the chemical binding condition. The VUV irradiation eliminated the oxide and contaminations, and changed the binding condition of carbon. For the monolayer graphene surface, the oxidized site was almost completely removed and C-C bond, which has the binding energy of 284.4 eV, became dominant. For the multilayer surface, although C-O bonds remained, the atomic weight percentage of carbon increased. Raman spectroscopy study results showed that the intensity of defect, which was indicated by D-band, decreased both on the monolayer and multilayer. Moreover, the intensity of 2D band, which was attributable to graphene formation, became stronger; the VUV irradiation turned out effective to modify the crystalline structure to create graphene outmost surface layer. After the VUV irradiation, the surfaces were exposed to the water vapor to make the surface hydrophilic, because molecular water can adsorbe on the hydrophilic carbon surfaces, create hydrogen bond between on the moment of contact, and make good adhesion between the surfaces. XPS observations indicated that the bridging layers including molecular layers, which were assigned as CHO (286.2eV) and/or COOH (288.2eV), were created by water exposure. Raman observations confirmed that the intensity ratio of D band and G band (ID/I G) decreased and the ratio of 2D band and G band (I 2D/IG) increased apparently on the monolayer and multilayer, respectively. This inferred that the defect decreased and the disordered graphene layer was reduced on the outmost surface, and the quantitative quality of graphene was improved due to the water exposure. Similarly, the peak shifts showed that, both on the monolayer and multilayer, the crosslink between carbon and hydrogen became closer. Without using chemical process, the simple VUV irradiation combined with the water exposure turned out highly effective to make tight bond between graphene surfaces without degrading the quantitative quality.

AB - A room temperature direct bonding between graphene thin films was realized by using vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) / vapor-assisted surface modification method at atmospheric pressure. In this paper, we examined the bonding between graphene mono layers and multi layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that, in the ambient air, the graphene surfaces were easy to be oxidized, which resulted in the formation of CO2 (C-O 286.6eV) and organic hydrocarbons. Additionally, chlorine from the graphene production process was found on the outmost surface. For such oxidized and adsorbed surfaces, the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) treatment was found highly effective to modify the chemical binding condition. The VUV irradiation eliminated the oxide and contaminations, and changed the binding condition of carbon. For the monolayer graphene surface, the oxidized site was almost completely removed and C-C bond, which has the binding energy of 284.4 eV, became dominant. For the multilayer surface, although C-O bonds remained, the atomic weight percentage of carbon increased. Raman spectroscopy study results showed that the intensity of defect, which was indicated by D-band, decreased both on the monolayer and multilayer. Moreover, the intensity of 2D band, which was attributable to graphene formation, became stronger; the VUV irradiation turned out effective to modify the crystalline structure to create graphene outmost surface layer. After the VUV irradiation, the surfaces were exposed to the water vapor to make the surface hydrophilic, because molecular water can adsorbe on the hydrophilic carbon surfaces, create hydrogen bond between on the moment of contact, and make good adhesion between the surfaces. XPS observations indicated that the bridging layers including molecular layers, which were assigned as CHO (286.2eV) and/or COOH (288.2eV), were created by water exposure. Raman observations confirmed that the intensity ratio of D band and G band (ID/I G) decreased and the ratio of 2D band and G band (I 2D/IG) increased apparently on the monolayer and multilayer, respectively. This inferred that the defect decreased and the disordered graphene layer was reduced on the outmost surface, and the quantitative quality of graphene was improved due to the water exposure. Similarly, the peak shifts showed that, both on the monolayer and multilayer, the crosslink between carbon and hydrogen became closer. Without using chemical process, the simple VUV irradiation combined with the water exposure turned out highly effective to make tight bond between graphene surfaces without degrading the quantitative quality.

KW - bonding technology

KW - defects

KW - direct bonding

KW - Graphene

KW - humidity sensitivity

KW - interconnects

KW - packaging

KW - room temperature

KW - VUV

KW - water expose

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84903747956&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84903747956&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1109/ICEP.2014.6826761

DO - 10.1109/ICEP.2014.6826761

M3 - Conference contribution

SN - 9784904090107

SP - 652

EP - 657

BT - 2014 International Conference on Electronics Packaging, ICEP 2014

PB - IEEE Computer Society

ER -