Search for cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission in galaxy clusters

M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Albert, A. Allafort, W. B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, E. Bottacini, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. BusonG. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, E. Cavazzuti, R. C G Chaves, J. Chiang, G. Chiaro, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, S. W. Digel, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, C. Favuzzi, A. Franckowiak, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, G. Godfrey, G. A. Gomez-Vargas, I. A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, J. Hewitt, R. E. Hughes, T. E. Jeltema, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, T. Kamae, Jun Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, M. Mayer, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, R. Nemmen, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, M. Orienti, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, J. S. Perkins, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, G. Pivato, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, J. Ruan, M. Sánchez-Conde, A. Schulz, C. Sgrò, E. J. Siskind, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, E. Storm, A. W. Strong, D. J. Suson, H. Takahashi, J. G. Thayer, J. B. Thayer, D. J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, M. Tinivella, D. F. Torres, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, T. L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, B. L. Winer, K. S. Wood, S. Zimmer, A. Pinzke, C. Pfrommer

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    75 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Current theories predict relativistic hadronic particle populations in clusters of galaxies in addition to the already observed relativistic leptons. In these scenarios hadronic interactions give rise to neutral pions which decay into γ rays that are potentially observable with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi space telescope. We present a joint likelihood analysis searching for spatially extended γ-ray emission at the locations of 50 galaxy clusters in four years of Fermi-LAT data under the assumption of the universal cosmic-ray (CR) model proposed by Pinzke & Pfrommer. We find an excess at a significance of 2.7σ, which upon closer inspection, however, is correlated to individual excess emission toward three galaxy clusters: A400, A1367, and A3112. We discuss these cases in detail and conservatively attribute the emission to unmodeled background systems (for example, radio galaxies within the clusters).Through the combined analysis of 50 clusters, we exclude hadronic injection efficiencies in simple hadronic models above 21% and establish limits on the CR to thermal pressure ratio within the virial radius, R 200, to be below 1.25%-1.4% depending on the morphological classification. In addition, we derive new limits on the γ-ray flux from individual clusters in our sample.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number18
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume787
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014 May 20

    Fingerprint

    cosmic ray
    cosmic rays
    gamma rays
    galaxies
    rays
    telescopes
    radio
    pressure ratio
    relativistic particles
    radio galaxies
    leptons
    inspection
    pions
    injection
    radii
    analysis
    decay
    interactions
    attribute
    particle

    Keywords

    • Galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium
    • gamma rays: galaxies: clusters

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Space and Planetary Science
    • Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Cite this

    Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Allafort, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., ... Pfrommer, C. (2014). Search for cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission in galaxy clusters. Astrophysical Journal, 787(1), [18]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/787/1/18

    Search for cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission in galaxy clusters. / Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Chaves, R. C G; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; D'Ammando, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Franckowiak, A.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hewitt, J.; Hughes, R. E.; Jeltema, T. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, Jun; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Garde, M. Llena; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ruan, J.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Storm, E.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Zimmer, S.; Pinzke, A.; Pfrommer, C.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 787, No. 1, 18, 20.05.2014.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Ackermann, M, Ajello, M, Albert, A, Allafort, A, Atwood, WB, Baldini, L, Ballet, J, Barbiellini, G, Bastieri, D, Bechtol, K, Bellazzini, R, Bloom, ED, Bonamente, E, Bottacini, E, Brandt, TJ, Bregeon, J, Brigida, M, Bruel, P, Buehler, R, Buson, S, Caliandro, GA, Cameron, RA, Caraveo, PA, Cavazzuti, E, Chaves, RCG, Chiang, J, Chiaro, G, Ciprini, S, Claus, R, Cohen-Tanugi, J, Conrad, J, D'Ammando, F, De Angelis, A, De Palma, F, Dermer, CD, Digel, SW, Drell, PS, Drlica-Wagner, A, Favuzzi, C, Franckowiak, A, Funk, S, Fusco, P, Gargano, F, Gasparrini, D, Germani, S, Giglietto, N, Giordano, F, Giroletti, M, Godfrey, G, Gomez-Vargas, GA, Grenier, IA, Guiriec, S, Gustafsson, M, Hadasch, D, Hayashida, M, Hewitt, J, Hughes, RE, Jeltema, TE, Jóhannesson, G, Johnson, AS, Kamae, T, Kataoka, J, Knödlseder, J, Kuss, M, Lande, J, Larsson, S, Latronico, L, Garde, ML, Longo, F, Loparco, F, Lovellette, MN, Lubrano, P, Mayer, M, Mazziotta, MN, McEnery, JE, Michelson, PF, Mitthumsiri, W, Mizuno, T, Monzani, ME, Morselli, A, Moskalenko, IV, Murgia, S, Nemmen, R, Nuss, E, Ohsugi, T, Orienti, M, Orlando, E, Ormes, JF, Perkins, JS, Pesce-Rollins, M, Piron, F, Pivato, G, Rainò, S, Rando, R, Razzano, M, Razzaque, S, Reimer, A, Reimer, O, Ruan, J, Sánchez-Conde, M, Schulz, A, Sgrò, C, Siskind, EJ, Spandre, G, Spinelli, P, Storm, E, Strong, AW, Suson, DJ, Takahashi, H, Thayer, JG, Thayer, JB, Thompson, DJ, Tibaldo, L, Tinivella, M, Torres, DF, Troja, E, Uchiyama, Y, Usher, TL, Vandenbroucke, J, Vianello, G, Vitale, V, Winer, BL, Wood, KS, Zimmer, S, Pinzke, A & Pfrommer, C 2014, 'Search for cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission in galaxy clusters', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 787, no. 1, 18. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/787/1/18
    Ackermann M, Ajello M, Albert A, Allafort A, Atwood WB, Baldini L et al. Search for cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission in galaxy clusters. Astrophysical Journal. 2014 May 20;787(1). 18. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/787/1/18
    Ackermann, M. ; Ajello, M. ; Albert, A. ; Allafort, A. ; Atwood, W. B. ; Baldini, L. ; Ballet, J. ; Barbiellini, G. ; Bastieri, D. ; Bechtol, K. ; Bellazzini, R. ; Bloom, E. D. ; Bonamente, E. ; Bottacini, E. ; Brandt, T. J. ; Bregeon, J. ; Brigida, M. ; Bruel, P. ; Buehler, R. ; Buson, S. ; Caliandro, G. A. ; Cameron, R. A. ; Caraveo, P. A. ; Cavazzuti, E. ; Chaves, R. C G ; Chiang, J. ; Chiaro, G. ; Ciprini, S. ; Claus, R. ; Cohen-Tanugi, J. ; Conrad, J. ; D'Ammando, F. ; De Angelis, A. ; De Palma, F. ; Dermer, C. D. ; Digel, S. W. ; Drell, P. S. ; Drlica-Wagner, A. ; Favuzzi, C. ; Franckowiak, A. ; Funk, S. ; Fusco, P. ; Gargano, F. ; Gasparrini, D. ; Germani, S. ; Giglietto, N. ; Giordano, F. ; Giroletti, M. ; Godfrey, G. ; Gomez-Vargas, G. A. ; Grenier, I. A. ; Guiriec, S. ; Gustafsson, M. ; Hadasch, D. ; Hayashida, M. ; Hewitt, J. ; Hughes, R. E. ; Jeltema, T. E. ; Jóhannesson, G. ; Johnson, A. S. ; Kamae, T. ; Kataoka, Jun ; Knödlseder, J. ; Kuss, M. ; Lande, J. ; Larsson, S. ; Latronico, L. ; Garde, M. Llena ; Longo, F. ; Loparco, F. ; Lovellette, M. N. ; Lubrano, P. ; Mayer, M. ; Mazziotta, M. N. ; McEnery, J. E. ; Michelson, P. F. ; Mitthumsiri, W. ; Mizuno, T. ; Monzani, M. E. ; Morselli, A. ; Moskalenko, I. V. ; Murgia, S. ; Nemmen, R. ; Nuss, E. ; Ohsugi, T. ; Orienti, M. ; Orlando, E. ; Ormes, J. F. ; Perkins, J. S. ; Pesce-Rollins, M. ; Piron, F. ; Pivato, G. ; Rainò, S. ; Rando, R. ; Razzano, M. ; Razzaque, S. ; Reimer, A. ; Reimer, O. ; Ruan, J. ; Sánchez-Conde, M. ; Schulz, A. ; Sgrò, C. ; Siskind, E. J. ; Spandre, G. ; Spinelli, P. ; Storm, E. ; Strong, A. W. ; Suson, D. J. ; Takahashi, H. ; Thayer, J. G. ; Thayer, J. B. ; Thompson, D. J. ; Tibaldo, L. ; Tinivella, M. ; Torres, D. F. ; Troja, E. ; Uchiyama, Y. ; Usher, T. L. ; Vandenbroucke, J. ; Vianello, G. ; Vitale, V. ; Winer, B. L. ; Wood, K. S. ; Zimmer, S. ; Pinzke, A. ; Pfrommer, C. / Search for cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission in galaxy clusters. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2014 ; Vol. 787, No. 1.
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    title = "Search for cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission in galaxy clusters",
    abstract = "Current theories predict relativistic hadronic particle populations in clusters of galaxies in addition to the already observed relativistic leptons. In these scenarios hadronic interactions give rise to neutral pions which decay into γ rays that are potentially observable with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi space telescope. We present a joint likelihood analysis searching for spatially extended γ-ray emission at the locations of 50 galaxy clusters in four years of Fermi-LAT data under the assumption of the universal cosmic-ray (CR) model proposed by Pinzke & Pfrommer. We find an excess at a significance of 2.7σ, which upon closer inspection, however, is correlated to individual excess emission toward three galaxy clusters: A400, A1367, and A3112. We discuss these cases in detail and conservatively attribute the emission to unmodeled background systems (for example, radio galaxies within the clusters).Through the combined analysis of 50 clusters, we exclude hadronic injection efficiencies in simple hadronic models above 21{\%} and establish limits on the CR to thermal pressure ratio within the virial radius, R 200, to be below 1.25{\%}-1.4{\%} depending on the morphological classification. In addition, we derive new limits on the γ-ray flux from individual clusters in our sample.",
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    T1 - Search for cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission in galaxy clusters

    AU - Ackermann, M.

    AU - Ajello, M.

    AU - Albert, A.

    AU - Allafort, A.

    AU - Atwood, W. B.

    AU - Baldini, L.

    AU - Ballet, J.

    AU - Barbiellini, G.

    AU - Bastieri, D.

    AU - Bechtol, K.

    AU - Bellazzini, R.

    AU - Bloom, E. D.

    AU - Bonamente, E.

    AU - Bottacini, E.

    AU - Brandt, T. J.

    AU - Bregeon, J.

    AU - Brigida, M.

    AU - Bruel, P.

    AU - Buehler, R.

    AU - Buson, S.

    AU - Caliandro, G. A.

    AU - Cameron, R. A.

    AU - Caraveo, P. A.

    AU - Cavazzuti, E.

    AU - Chaves, R. C G

    AU - Chiang, J.

    AU - Chiaro, G.

    AU - Ciprini, S.

    AU - Claus, R.

    AU - Cohen-Tanugi, J.

    AU - Conrad, J.

    AU - D'Ammando, F.

    AU - De Angelis, A.

    AU - De Palma, F.

    AU - Dermer, C. D.

    AU - Digel, S. W.

    AU - Drell, P. S.

    AU - Drlica-Wagner, A.

    AU - Favuzzi, C.

    AU - Franckowiak, A.

    AU - Funk, S.

    AU - Fusco, P.

    AU - Gargano, F.

    AU - Gasparrini, D.

    AU - Germani, S.

    AU - Giglietto, N.

    AU - Giordano, F.

    AU - Giroletti, M.

    AU - Godfrey, G.

    AU - Gomez-Vargas, G. A.

    AU - Grenier, I. A.

    AU - Guiriec, S.

    AU - Gustafsson, M.

    AU - Hadasch, D.

    AU - Hayashida, M.

    AU - Hewitt, J.

    AU - Hughes, R. E.

    AU - Jeltema, T. E.

    AU - Jóhannesson, G.

    AU - Johnson, A. S.

    AU - Kamae, T.

    AU - Kataoka, Jun

    AU - Knödlseder, J.

    AU - Kuss, M.

    AU - Lande, J.

    AU - Larsson, S.

    AU - Latronico, L.

    AU - Garde, M. Llena

    AU - Longo, F.

    AU - Loparco, F.

    AU - Lovellette, M. N.

    AU - Lubrano, P.

    AU - Mayer, M.

    AU - Mazziotta, M. N.

    AU - McEnery, J. E.

    AU - Michelson, P. F.

    AU - Mitthumsiri, W.

    AU - Mizuno, T.

    AU - Monzani, M. E.

    AU - Morselli, A.

    AU - Moskalenko, I. V.

    AU - Murgia, S.

    AU - Nemmen, R.

    AU - Nuss, E.

    AU - Ohsugi, T.

    AU - Orienti, M.

    AU - Orlando, E.

    AU - Ormes, J. F.

    AU - Perkins, J. S.

    AU - Pesce-Rollins, M.

    AU - Piron, F.

    AU - Pivato, G.

    AU - Rainò, S.

    AU - Rando, R.

    AU - Razzano, M.

    AU - Razzaque, S.

    AU - Reimer, A.

    AU - Reimer, O.

    AU - Ruan, J.

    AU - Sánchez-Conde, M.

    AU - Schulz, A.

    AU - Sgrò, C.

    AU - Siskind, E. J.

    AU - Spandre, G.

    AU - Spinelli, P.

    AU - Storm, E.

    AU - Strong, A. W.

    AU - Suson, D. J.

    AU - Takahashi, H.

    AU - Thayer, J. G.

    AU - Thayer, J. B.

    AU - Thompson, D. J.

    AU - Tibaldo, L.

    AU - Tinivella, M.

    AU - Torres, D. F.

    AU - Troja, E.

    AU - Uchiyama, Y.

    AU - Usher, T. L.

    AU - Vandenbroucke, J.

    AU - Vianello, G.

    AU - Vitale, V.

    AU - Winer, B. L.

    AU - Wood, K. S.

    AU - Zimmer, S.

    AU - Pinzke, A.

    AU - Pfrommer, C.

    PY - 2014/5/20

    Y1 - 2014/5/20

    N2 - Current theories predict relativistic hadronic particle populations in clusters of galaxies in addition to the already observed relativistic leptons. In these scenarios hadronic interactions give rise to neutral pions which decay into γ rays that are potentially observable with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi space telescope. We present a joint likelihood analysis searching for spatially extended γ-ray emission at the locations of 50 galaxy clusters in four years of Fermi-LAT data under the assumption of the universal cosmic-ray (CR) model proposed by Pinzke & Pfrommer. We find an excess at a significance of 2.7σ, which upon closer inspection, however, is correlated to individual excess emission toward three galaxy clusters: A400, A1367, and A3112. We discuss these cases in detail and conservatively attribute the emission to unmodeled background systems (for example, radio galaxies within the clusters).Through the combined analysis of 50 clusters, we exclude hadronic injection efficiencies in simple hadronic models above 21% and establish limits on the CR to thermal pressure ratio within the virial radius, R 200, to be below 1.25%-1.4% depending on the morphological classification. In addition, we derive new limits on the γ-ray flux from individual clusters in our sample.

    AB - Current theories predict relativistic hadronic particle populations in clusters of galaxies in addition to the already observed relativistic leptons. In these scenarios hadronic interactions give rise to neutral pions which decay into γ rays that are potentially observable with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi space telescope. We present a joint likelihood analysis searching for spatially extended γ-ray emission at the locations of 50 galaxy clusters in four years of Fermi-LAT data under the assumption of the universal cosmic-ray (CR) model proposed by Pinzke & Pfrommer. We find an excess at a significance of 2.7σ, which upon closer inspection, however, is correlated to individual excess emission toward three galaxy clusters: A400, A1367, and A3112. We discuss these cases in detail and conservatively attribute the emission to unmodeled background systems (for example, radio galaxies within the clusters).Through the combined analysis of 50 clusters, we exclude hadronic injection efficiencies in simple hadronic models above 21% and establish limits on the CR to thermal pressure ratio within the virial radius, R 200, to be below 1.25%-1.4% depending on the morphological classification. In addition, we derive new limits on the γ-ray flux from individual clusters in our sample.

    KW - Galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium

    KW - gamma rays: galaxies: clusters

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