Secret ballot systems using cryptography

Minoru Akiyama*, Yoshiaki Tanaka, Toshio Kikuchi, Hiroaki Uji

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Several problems arise when an electrical communication system is utilized to realize a secret ballot. For example, double voting is easy. Even if cryptography is used, the content can be deciphered by voters who know the key to the cryptography. This paper proposes and discusses a system which can solve those problems and can realize a secure secret ballot by electrical communication. The divided‐vote secret ballot system is considered first. In this system, the individual votes represented by integers are divided into several sets and are distributed to ballot managers who process the subsets and announce the total. Deciphering and counterfeiting are impossible. Then the sum‐round‐opening secret ballot is discussed. In this system, the vote is enciphered using the GS public‐key system, and are totaled in the enciphered form. The separate‐round‐opening secret ballot is also discussed in this paper. The system is a modification of the sum‐round‐opening type so that the individual votes can be opened separately. Deciphering, counterfeiting and impeding are impossible in this system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7-16
Number of pages10
JournalElectronics and Communications in Japan, Part I: Communications (English translation of Denshi Tsushin Gakkai Ronbunshi)
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1985
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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