Self-construals and the Dark Triad traits in six countries

Peter K. Jonason*, Joshua Foster, Atsushi Oshio, Maria Sitnikova, Bela Birkas, Valdiney Gouveia

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


In a sample (N = 1969) drawn from six countries, we examined the relationships between individual differences in independent and interdependent self-construals and the Dark Triad traits (i.e., psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism). Overall, the Dark Traits were largely unrelated to interdependence whereas Machiavellianism and narcissism, in particular, were associated with stronger independent self-construals. Men scored higher than women did on the Dark Triad traits in all countries with some cross-cultural variance. Women were used both more independent and interdependent self-construals than men were but these were weak and driven by country-specific effects. Sex differences in the Dark Triad traits were partially accounted for by individual differences in self-construals, but these mediation effects were quite small and speculative given limited evidence for sex differences in self-construals in the six countries we sampled. Results are discussed in terms of differentiating the Dark Triad traits.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)120-124
Number of pages5
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jul 15


  • Independence
  • Interdependence
  • Machiavellianism
  • Narcissism
  • Psychopathy
  • Self-construals
  • Sex differences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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