Severe leaching of calcium ions from fir needles caused by acid fog

Manabu Igawa*, Toshiyuki Kase, Kosuke Satake, Hiroshi Okochi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


We have measured the components of the throughfall under fir trees (Abies firma) in the field around Mt. Oyama, where the forest appears to be declining, for the period 1994-1998. Exposure experiments of a simulated acid fog to fir twigs were performed under field conditions. There was a similarity between the acid response in the field and that in the laboratory. In both studies, the severe leaching of calcium ions from the needle surface was caused by exposure to acid fog. We also applied acid fog to fir seedlings over 1 year and observed a decrease in the growth of the seedlings due to this application in the dormant season. These results suggest that the severe leaching of calcium ions due to acid fog may cause the deficiency of calcium and be responsible for the decline of the fir trees.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)375-382
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Abies firma
  • Acid fog
  • Calcium leaching
  • Forest decline
  • Throughfall

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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