SFMap: Inferring services over encrypted web flows using dynamical domain name graphs

Tatsuya Mori*, Takeru Inoue, Akihiro Shimoda, Kazumichi Sato, Keisuke Ishibashi, Shigeki Goto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

13 Citations (Scopus)


Most modern Internet services are carried over the web. A significant amount of web transactions is now encrypted and the transition to encryption hasmade it difficult for network operators to understand traffic mix.Thegoal of this study is to enable network operators to inferhostnames within HTTPS traffic because hostname information is useful to understand the breakdown of encrypted web traffic. The proposed approach correlates HTTPS flows and DNS queries/responses. Although this approach may appear trivial, recent deployment and implementation ofDNS ecosystems have made it a challenging research problem; i.e., canonical name tricks used by CDNs, the dynamic and diverse nature of DNS TTL settings, and incompletemeasurements due to the existence of various caching mechanisms. To tackle these challenges, we introduce domain name graph (DNG), which is a formal expression that characterizes the highly dynamic and diverse nature of DNS mechanisms. Furthermore, we have developed a framework called Service-Flow map (SFMap) that works on top of the DNG. SFMap statistically estimates the hostname of an HTTPS server, given a pair of client and server IP addresses.We evaluate the performance ofSFMapthrough extensive analysis using real packet traces collected from two locations with different scales.Wedemonstrate thatSFMapestablishes good estimation accuracies and outperforms a state-of-the-art approach.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTraffic Monitoring and Analysis - 7th International Workshop, TMA 2015, Proceedings
EditorsPere Barlet-Ros, Olivier Bonaventure, Moritz Steiner
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9783319171715
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Event7th International Workshop on Traffic Monitoring and Analysis, TMA 2015 - Barcelona, Spain
Duration: 2015 Apr 212015 Apr 24

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Other7th International Workshop on Traffic Monitoring and Analysis, TMA 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)


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