Short-term low carbohydrate/high-fat diet intake increases postprandial plasma glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels during an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy men

S. Numao, H. Kawano, N. Endo, Y. Yamada, Masayuki Konishi, Masaki Takahashi, Shizuo Sakamoto

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34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background/Objectives:Postprandial hyperglycemia increases the risks of development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 3-day low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LC/HFD) alters postprandial plasma glucose and incretin levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in healthy men.Subjects/Methods:Nine healthy young men (age (means.e.), 271 years; body mass index, 221 kg/m 2) consumed either a normal diet (ND: energy from 22% fat) or a LC/HFD (energy from 69% fat) for 3 days each. The total energy intake from each diet was similar. An OGTT was performed after each 3-day dietary intervention. Postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, free fatty acid and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were determined at rest and during the OGTT.Results:Plasma glucose levels and incremental area under the curve during the OGTT were significantly higher in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P0.024). In addition, increase in GLP-1 levels was significantly higher in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P0.025). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P0.041).Conclusions:These results demonstrate that even short-term LC/HFD increased postprandial plasma glucose and GLP-1 levels in healthy young men. A decrease in first-phase insulin secretion may partially contribute to the short-term LC/HFD-induced increase in postprandial plasma glucose levels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)926-931
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume66
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Aug

Fingerprint

Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
High Fat Diet
Glucose Tolerance Test
Carbohydrates
Glucose
Insulin
Fats
Diet
Incretins
Energy Intake
Nonesterified Fatty Acids
Hyperglycemia
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Area Under Curve
Body Mass Index
Cardiovascular Diseases

Keywords

  • glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide
  • impaired glucose tolerance
  • incretin
  • postprandial hyperglycemia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

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title = "Short-term low carbohydrate/high-fat diet intake increases postprandial plasma glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels during an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy men",
abstract = "Background/Objectives:Postprandial hyperglycemia increases the risks of development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 3-day low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LC/HFD) alters postprandial plasma glucose and incretin levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in healthy men.Subjects/Methods:Nine healthy young men (age (means.e.), 271 years; body mass index, 221 kg/m 2) consumed either a normal diet (ND: energy from 22{\%} fat) or a LC/HFD (energy from 69{\%} fat) for 3 days each. The total energy intake from each diet was similar. An OGTT was performed after each 3-day dietary intervention. Postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, free fatty acid and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were determined at rest and during the OGTT.Results:Plasma glucose levels and incremental area under the curve during the OGTT were significantly higher in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P0.024). In addition, increase in GLP-1 levels was significantly higher in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P0.025). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P0.041).Conclusions:These results demonstrate that even short-term LC/HFD increased postprandial plasma glucose and GLP-1 levels in healthy young men. A decrease in first-phase insulin secretion may partially contribute to the short-term LC/HFD-induced increase in postprandial plasma glucose levels.",
keywords = "glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, impaired glucose tolerance, incretin, postprandial hyperglycemia",
author = "S. Numao and H. Kawano and N. Endo and Y. Yamada and Masayuki Konishi and Masaki Takahashi and Shizuo Sakamoto",
year = "2012",
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language = "English",
volume = "66",
pages = "926--931",
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T1 - Short-term low carbohydrate/high-fat diet intake increases postprandial plasma glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels during an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy men

AU - Numao, S.

AU - Kawano, H.

AU - Endo, N.

AU - Yamada, Y.

AU - Konishi, Masayuki

AU - Takahashi, Masaki

AU - Sakamoto, Shizuo

PY - 2012/8

Y1 - 2012/8

N2 - Background/Objectives:Postprandial hyperglycemia increases the risks of development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 3-day low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LC/HFD) alters postprandial plasma glucose and incretin levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in healthy men.Subjects/Methods:Nine healthy young men (age (means.e.), 271 years; body mass index, 221 kg/m 2) consumed either a normal diet (ND: energy from 22% fat) or a LC/HFD (energy from 69% fat) for 3 days each. The total energy intake from each diet was similar. An OGTT was performed after each 3-day dietary intervention. Postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, free fatty acid and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were determined at rest and during the OGTT.Results:Plasma glucose levels and incremental area under the curve during the OGTT were significantly higher in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P0.024). In addition, increase in GLP-1 levels was significantly higher in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P0.025). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P0.041).Conclusions:These results demonstrate that even short-term LC/HFD increased postprandial plasma glucose and GLP-1 levels in healthy young men. A decrease in first-phase insulin secretion may partially contribute to the short-term LC/HFD-induced increase in postprandial plasma glucose levels.

AB - Background/Objectives:Postprandial hyperglycemia increases the risks of development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 3-day low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LC/HFD) alters postprandial plasma glucose and incretin levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in healthy men.Subjects/Methods:Nine healthy young men (age (means.e.), 271 years; body mass index, 221 kg/m 2) consumed either a normal diet (ND: energy from 22% fat) or a LC/HFD (energy from 69% fat) for 3 days each. The total energy intake from each diet was similar. An OGTT was performed after each 3-day dietary intervention. Postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, free fatty acid and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were determined at rest and during the OGTT.Results:Plasma glucose levels and incremental area under the curve during the OGTT were significantly higher in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P0.024). In addition, increase in GLP-1 levels was significantly higher in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P0.025). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P0.041).Conclusions:These results demonstrate that even short-term LC/HFD increased postprandial plasma glucose and GLP-1 levels in healthy young men. A decrease in first-phase insulin secretion may partially contribute to the short-term LC/HFD-induced increase in postprandial plasma glucose levels.

KW - glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

KW - impaired glucose tolerance

KW - incretin

KW - postprandial hyperglycemia

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