Simultaneous optimization of hatching orientations and lattice density distribution for residual warpage reduction in laser powder bed fusion considering layerwise residual stress stacking

Akihiro Takezawa*, Honghu Guo, Ryotaro Kobayashi, Qian Chen, Albert C. To

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The reduction in the residual warpage generated via fabrication is an emerging issue in metals’ laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing (AM). One solution from a design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) perspective is to arrange a hatching strategy that utilizes the asymmetry of the residual stress generated from a molten pool. Another approach is to arrange the geometry of the parts, such as forming an inner lattice structure to arrange the effective stiffness. In this study, the simultaneous optimization of the laser hatching orientation and lattice density distribution was conducted to minimize the residual warpage in lattice infill structures and confirm their synergetic effect. The mutual effect of each layer was highlighted when considering the mechanical background of the optimal results because an imbalance in the residual stress caused the warpage of the AM parts between the layers. The proposed methodology was validated via experimental verification using a quasi-2D plate, 3D bracket, and 3D connecting-rod design problems. The residual warpage in the quasi-2D study, measured as the edge's vertical deformation, was reduced from 23.4% to 39.4% compared with the benchmark design. In the 3D studies, the warpage reductions ranged from 13.1% to 20.7%.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103194
JournalAdditive Manufacturing
Volume60
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec

Keywords

  • Design optimization
  • Inherent strain method
  • Residual deformation
  • Scanning strategy
  • Variable lattice density

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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