Simultaneous recycling of nickel metal hydride, lithium ion and primary lithium batteries: Accomplishment of European Guidelines by optimizing mechanical pre-treatment and solvent extraction operations

Giuseppe Granata, F. Pagnanelli, E. Moscardini, Z. Takacova, T. Havlik, L. Toro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this paper the recycling of nickel metal hydride (NiMH), lithium ion (Li-ion) and primary lithium batteries was examined. Three mechanical routes of treatment were developed for each type recovering mainly three fractions: ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals and electrodic powders. The above mentioned types of spent batteries were also treated together by a unique mechanical route, obtaining in this way a powder enriched in cobalt, nickel and manganese which can be further extractable by chemical leaching. Experimental tests of solvent extraction were performed on synthetic leach liquors simulating a feed mixture of spent devices with weight composition 40% NiMH, 40% primary lithium, and 20% Li-ion (as determined by manual sorting of 3 tons of end of life batteries collected in Northern Italy). Under these conditions nickel and cobalt can be easily separated by using Cyanex 272 (stoichiometric ratio Cyanex/Co = 4, pH 5-6), but in presence of manganese Cyanex 272 loses its selectivity towards cobalt. Thus manganese must be preliminarily removed by using D2EHPA (stoichiometric ratio D2EHPA/Mn = 2, pH 4). Mechanical treatments and hydrometallurgical section to recover metals from electrodic powder are unavoidable operations in order to recover at least 50% of batteries as weight according to European Guideline 2006/66/EC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)205-211
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume212
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Aug 15
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

primary batteries
solvent extraction
metal hydrides
Lithium batteries
lithium batteries
Solvent extraction
recycling
Nickel
Lithium
Hydrides
pretreatment
Recycling
Manganese
lithium
Cobalt
Metals
nickel
Powders
Ions
electric batteries

Keywords

  • Battery recycling
  • Lithium ion
  • Mechanical pre-treatment
  • Nickel metal hydride
  • Primary lithium
  • Solvent extraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Cite this

Simultaneous recycling of nickel metal hydride, lithium ion and primary lithium batteries : Accomplishment of European Guidelines by optimizing mechanical pre-treatment and solvent extraction operations. / Granata, Giuseppe; Pagnanelli, F.; Moscardini, E.; Takacova, Z.; Havlik, T.; Toro, L.

In: Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 212, 15.08.2012, p. 205-211.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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