Simultaneous recycling of nickel metal hydride, lithium ion and primary lithium batteries: Accomplishment of European Guidelines by optimizing mechanical pre-treatment and solvent extraction operations

Giuseppe Granata, F. Pagnanelli, E. Moscardini, Z. Takacova, T. Havlik, L. Toro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

59 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this paper the recycling of nickel metal hydride (NiMH), lithium ion (Li-ion) and primary lithium batteries was examined. Three mechanical routes of treatment were developed for each type recovering mainly three fractions: ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals and electrodic powders. The above mentioned types of spent batteries were also treated together by a unique mechanical route, obtaining in this way a powder enriched in cobalt, nickel and manganese which can be further extractable by chemical leaching. Experimental tests of solvent extraction were performed on synthetic leach liquors simulating a feed mixture of spent devices with weight composition 40% NiMH, 40% primary lithium, and 20% Li-ion (as determined by manual sorting of 3 tons of end of life batteries collected in Northern Italy). Under these conditions nickel and cobalt can be easily separated by using Cyanex 272 (stoichiometric ratio Cyanex/Co = 4, pH 5-6), but in presence of manganese Cyanex 272 loses its selectivity towards cobalt. Thus manganese must be preliminarily removed by using D2EHPA (stoichiometric ratio D2EHPA/Mn = 2, pH 4). Mechanical treatments and hydrometallurgical section to recover metals from electrodic powder are unavoidable operations in order to recover at least 50% of batteries as weight according to European Guideline 2006/66/EC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)205-211
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume212
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Aug 15
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Battery recycling
  • Lithium ion
  • Mechanical pre-treatment
  • Nickel metal hydride
  • Primary lithium
  • Solvent extraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

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