Carbon nanotubes'bio-effects have become a hotspot. In recent years, my group and collaborators try to use single walled carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs) as drug delivery system to regulate proliferation and differentiation of mouse stem cells. We observed that low dose of SWCNTs stimulate stem cells'proliferation and differentiation, higher dose of SWCNTs improve stem cells' apoptosis. Y-27632, a selective inhibitor of p160 Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase, can conjugate with SWCNTs and form the nanocomposites, which markedly inhibit the apoptosis of mouse stem cells, improve the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. The potential mechanism of effects of Y-27632-SWCNT composites on stem cells is also dicussed. Our primary results suggest that special enzyme modified SWCNTs can be used to regulate proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, which has potential application in stem cells-based therapy.