Smiling enemies: Young children better recall mean individuals who smile

Xianwei Meng, Tatsunori Ishii, K. Sugimoto, Ruiting Song, Yusuke Moriguchi, Katsumi Watanabe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Remembering whether a person is cooperative is essential in social interactions. It has been shown that adults have better memory of a person who showed an incongruence between emotional expression and expected behavior (e.g., smiling while stealing). To examine whether children would show similar emotional incongruity effects, we examined 70 children aged 5 or 6 years. They obtained coins that could be exchanged later for rewards (stickers) by answering quiz questions. Then, they participated in the coin collection game where individual persons with smiling or angry expressions appeared one at a time on a computer monitor. These same individuals then either gave coins to or took coins away from the children, leading to congruent (smiling giver and angry taker) and incongruent (smiling taker and angry giver) conditions. After the game, children needed to choose between two faces to indicate which one previously appeared in the game. Participants recognized faces better under the incongruent conditions. In particular, the smiling taker was recognized significantly better than the angry taker, whereas no difference was observed for the smiling and angry givers. Evidently, 5- and 6-year-olds better remember individuals whose facial expression or appearance is incongruent with their expected behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104672
JournalJournal of Experimental Child Psychology
Volume188
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Dec 1

Fingerprint

Smiling
Numismatics
Theft
Facial Expression
Interpersonal Relations
Reward

Keywords

  • Children
  • Emotional incongruity effect
  • Expectancy violation
  • Face memory
  • Facial expression
  • Social exchange

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

Cite this

Smiling enemies : Young children better recall mean individuals who smile. / Meng, Xianwei; Ishii, Tatsunori; Sugimoto, K.; Song, Ruiting; Moriguchi, Yusuke; Watanabe, Katsumi.

In: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Vol. 188, 104672, 01.12.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Meng, Xianwei ; Ishii, Tatsunori ; Sugimoto, K. ; Song, Ruiting ; Moriguchi, Yusuke ; Watanabe, Katsumi. / Smiling enemies : Young children better recall mean individuals who smile. In: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 2019 ; Vol. 188.
@article{c332152563e9422a8fae579746dc507e,
title = "Smiling enemies: Young children better recall mean individuals who smile",
abstract = "Remembering whether a person is cooperative is essential in social interactions. It has been shown that adults have better memory of a person who showed an incongruence between emotional expression and expected behavior (e.g., smiling while stealing). To examine whether children would show similar emotional incongruity effects, we examined 70 children aged 5 or 6 years. They obtained coins that could be exchanged later for rewards (stickers) by answering quiz questions. Then, they participated in the coin collection game where individual persons with smiling or angry expressions appeared one at a time on a computer monitor. These same individuals then either gave coins to or took coins away from the children, leading to congruent (smiling giver and angry taker) and incongruent (smiling taker and angry giver) conditions. After the game, children needed to choose between two faces to indicate which one previously appeared in the game. Participants recognized faces better under the incongruent conditions. In particular, the smiling taker was recognized significantly better than the angry taker, whereas no difference was observed for the smiling and angry givers. Evidently, 5- and 6-year-olds better remember individuals whose facial expression or appearance is incongruent with their expected behavior.",
keywords = "Children, Emotional incongruity effect, Expectancy violation, Face memory, Facial expression, Social exchange",
author = "Xianwei Meng and Tatsunori Ishii and K. Sugimoto and Ruiting Song and Yusuke Moriguchi and Katsumi Watanabe",
year = "2019",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jecp.2019.104672",
language = "English",
volume = "188",
journal = "Journal of Experimental Child Psychology",
issn = "0022-0965",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Smiling enemies

T2 - Young children better recall mean individuals who smile

AU - Meng, Xianwei

AU - Ishii, Tatsunori

AU - Sugimoto, K.

AU - Song, Ruiting

AU - Moriguchi, Yusuke

AU - Watanabe, Katsumi

PY - 2019/12/1

Y1 - 2019/12/1

N2 - Remembering whether a person is cooperative is essential in social interactions. It has been shown that adults have better memory of a person who showed an incongruence between emotional expression and expected behavior (e.g., smiling while stealing). To examine whether children would show similar emotional incongruity effects, we examined 70 children aged 5 or 6 years. They obtained coins that could be exchanged later for rewards (stickers) by answering quiz questions. Then, they participated in the coin collection game where individual persons with smiling or angry expressions appeared one at a time on a computer monitor. These same individuals then either gave coins to or took coins away from the children, leading to congruent (smiling giver and angry taker) and incongruent (smiling taker and angry giver) conditions. After the game, children needed to choose between two faces to indicate which one previously appeared in the game. Participants recognized faces better under the incongruent conditions. In particular, the smiling taker was recognized significantly better than the angry taker, whereas no difference was observed for the smiling and angry givers. Evidently, 5- and 6-year-olds better remember individuals whose facial expression or appearance is incongruent with their expected behavior.

AB - Remembering whether a person is cooperative is essential in social interactions. It has been shown that adults have better memory of a person who showed an incongruence between emotional expression and expected behavior (e.g., smiling while stealing). To examine whether children would show similar emotional incongruity effects, we examined 70 children aged 5 or 6 years. They obtained coins that could be exchanged later for rewards (stickers) by answering quiz questions. Then, they participated in the coin collection game where individual persons with smiling or angry expressions appeared one at a time on a computer monitor. These same individuals then either gave coins to or took coins away from the children, leading to congruent (smiling giver and angry taker) and incongruent (smiling taker and angry giver) conditions. After the game, children needed to choose between two faces to indicate which one previously appeared in the game. Participants recognized faces better under the incongruent conditions. In particular, the smiling taker was recognized significantly better than the angry taker, whereas no difference was observed for the smiling and angry givers. Evidently, 5- and 6-year-olds better remember individuals whose facial expression or appearance is incongruent with their expected behavior.

KW - Children

KW - Emotional incongruity effect

KW - Expectancy violation

KW - Face memory

KW - Facial expression

KW - Social exchange

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85070663766&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85070663766&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jecp.2019.104672

DO - 10.1016/j.jecp.2019.104672

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85070663766

VL - 188

JO - Journal of Experimental Child Psychology

JF - Journal of Experimental Child Psychology

SN - 0022-0965

M1 - 104672

ER -