Stable, efficient p-type doping of graphene by nitric acid

Lorenzo D'Arsié, Santiago Esconjauregui, Robert S. Weatherup, Xingyi Wu, William E. Arter, Hisashi Sugime, Cinzia Cepek, John Robertson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)


We systematically dope monolayer graphene with different concentrations of nitric acid over a range of temperatures, and analyze the variation of sheet resistance after vacuum annealing up to 300 °C. The optimized HNO3 doping conditions yield sheet resistances as low as 180 Ω sq.−1, which is significantly more stable under vacuum annealing than previously reported values. Raman and photoemission spectroscopy suggest that this stable graphene doping occurs by a bi-modal mechanism. Under mild conditions the dopants are weakly bonded to graphene, but at high acid temperatures and concentrations, the doping is higher and more stable upon post-doping annealing, without causing significant lattice damage. This work shows that large, stable hole concentrations can be induced by transfer doping in graphene.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113185-113192
Number of pages8
JournalRSC Advances
Issue number114
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)

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  • Cite this

    D'Arsié, L., Esconjauregui, S., Weatherup, R. S., Wu, X., Arter, W. E., Sugime, H., Cepek, C., & Robertson, J. (2016). Stable, efficient p-type doping of graphene by nitric acid. RSC Advances, 6(114), 113185-113192.