State transitions by molecules

Kensaku Sakamoto, Daisuke Kiga, Ken Komiya, Hidetaka Gouzu, Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Shuji Ikeda, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Masami Hagiya*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)


In our previous paper, we described a method by which a state machine is implemented by a single-stranded DNA molecule whose 3'-end sequence encodes the current state of the machine. Successive state transitions are performed in such a way that the current state is annealed onto an appropriate portion of DNA encoding the transition table of the state machine and the next state is copied to the 3'-end by extension with polymerase. In this paper, we first show that combined with parallel overlap assembly, a single series of successive transitions can solve NP-complete problems. This means that the number of necessary laboratory steps is independent from the problem size. We then report the results of two experiments concerning the implementation of our method. One is on isothermal reactions which greatly increase the efficiency of state transitions compared with reactions controlled by thermal cycles. The other is on the use of unnatural bases for avoiding out-of-frame annealing. The latter result can also be applied to many DNA-based computing paradigms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-91
Number of pages11
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - 1999 Oct
Externally publishedYes


  • DNA-Based computing
  • Hairpin structure
  • Isothermal reaction and reaction with thermal cycles
  • Successive state transition
  • Whiplash PCR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistics and Probability
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Applied Mathematics


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