Stochastic determinism underlying life: Systematic theory for assisting the synthesis of artificial cells and new medicines

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    The frequencies of purines and pyrimidines in double-strand DNA are in a symmetric ratio of 1: 1, while the asymmetric density ratios of purines and pyrimidines in RNA and artificial ribozymes are between 1: 1 and approximately 1: 1.5. The frequency ratio in DNA is deterministic, while that in RNA is fairly stochastic. Symbiotic fusion of deterministic symmetry and stochastic asymmetry, which can be seen at the molecular, cell and whole-body levels, is a key concept for understanding the self-organizing processes in living organisms. The left-right symmetric distribution of arms and legs is observed in outward appearance, although the inner body, including the heart and the liver, is asymmetric. A minimum hypercycle of four cycles at the origin of life is also in the symbiotic fusion of symmetry and asymmetry. The inevitability of deterministic symmetry and stochastic asymmetry underlying life is systematically revealed on the basis of physics as the weft and molecular biology as the warp.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)10-17
    Number of pages8
    JournalArtificial Life and Robotics
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2008



    • Asymmetry
    • Inevitability
    • Origin
    • Stochastic determinism
    • Symmetry

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Artificial Intelligence
    • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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