Strength and size relationships of the quadriceps and hamstrings with special reference to reciprocal muscle balance

Pavlos E. Evangelidis, Garry J. Massey, Matthew T.G. Pain, Jonathan P. Folland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: This study examined the association of muscle size and strength for the quadriceps and hamstrings, the relationship between the size of these muscles, and whether the H:Q size ratio influenced reciprocal strength balance—widely regarded as a risk factor for hamstrings injury. Methods: Knee extensor and flexor isometric, concentric and eccentric (50 and 350° s−1) strength were measured in 31 healthy, recreationally active young men. Muscle volume was measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The knee flexors achieved higher concentric and eccentric torques (normalised to isometric values) than the extensors. Muscle volume explained a significant part of the inter-individual differences in strength in both extensors (isometric 71 %, concentric 30–31 %) and flexors (isometric 38 %, concentric 50–55 %). Notably, muscle size was related to knee flexor eccentric strength (r = 0.69–0.76; R2 = 48–58 %) but not extensor eccentric strength. Quadriceps and hamstrings volumes were moderately correlated (r = 0.64), with the majority of the variance in the size of one muscle (59 %) not explained by the size of the other muscle. The hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) volume ratio was correlated with the isometric (r = 0.45) and functional strength ratios (350° s−1, r = 0.56; 50° s−1, r = 0.34). Conclusions: Muscle size exhibited a differential influence on knee extensor and flexor eccentric strength. Quadriceps and hamstrings muscle size was related, and the H:Q size ratio contributed to their strength ratios. Muscle size imbalances contribute to functional imbalances and these findings support the use of hamstrings strength training with an emphasis on hypertrophic adaptations for reducing injury risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)593-600
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Volume116
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Mar 1
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Muscles
Knee
Resistance Training
Quadriceps Muscle
Wounds and Injuries
Torque
Muscle Strength
Individuality
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Hamstring Muscles

Keywords

  • Hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio
  • Isokinetic dynamometer
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Maximal strength
  • Muscle volume
  • Torque-velocity relationship

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Strength and size relationships of the quadriceps and hamstrings with special reference to reciprocal muscle balance. / Evangelidis, Pavlos E.; Massey, Garry J.; Pain, Matthew T.G.; Folland, Jonathan P.

In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 116, No. 3, 01.03.2016, p. 593-600.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Evangelidis, Pavlos E. ; Massey, Garry J. ; Pain, Matthew T.G. ; Folland, Jonathan P. / Strength and size relationships of the quadriceps and hamstrings with special reference to reciprocal muscle balance. In: European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2016 ; Vol. 116, No. 3. pp. 593-600.
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AU - Evangelidis, Pavlos E.

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AU - Pain, Matthew T.G.

AU - Folland, Jonathan P.

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N2 - Purpose: This study examined the association of muscle size and strength for the quadriceps and hamstrings, the relationship between the size of these muscles, and whether the H:Q size ratio influenced reciprocal strength balance—widely regarded as a risk factor for hamstrings injury. Methods: Knee extensor and flexor isometric, concentric and eccentric (50 and 350° s−1) strength were measured in 31 healthy, recreationally active young men. Muscle volume was measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The knee flexors achieved higher concentric and eccentric torques (normalised to isometric values) than the extensors. Muscle volume explained a significant part of the inter-individual differences in strength in both extensors (isometric 71 %, concentric 30–31 %) and flexors (isometric 38 %, concentric 50–55 %). Notably, muscle size was related to knee flexor eccentric strength (r = 0.69–0.76; R2 = 48–58 %) but not extensor eccentric strength. Quadriceps and hamstrings volumes were moderately correlated (r = 0.64), with the majority of the variance in the size of one muscle (59 %) not explained by the size of the other muscle. The hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) volume ratio was correlated with the isometric (r = 0.45) and functional strength ratios (350° s−1, r = 0.56; 50° s−1, r = 0.34). Conclusions: Muscle size exhibited a differential influence on knee extensor and flexor eccentric strength. Quadriceps and hamstrings muscle size was related, and the H:Q size ratio contributed to their strength ratios. Muscle size imbalances contribute to functional imbalances and these findings support the use of hamstrings strength training with an emphasis on hypertrophic adaptations for reducing injury risk.

AB - Purpose: This study examined the association of muscle size and strength for the quadriceps and hamstrings, the relationship between the size of these muscles, and whether the H:Q size ratio influenced reciprocal strength balance—widely regarded as a risk factor for hamstrings injury. Methods: Knee extensor and flexor isometric, concentric and eccentric (50 and 350° s−1) strength were measured in 31 healthy, recreationally active young men. Muscle volume was measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The knee flexors achieved higher concentric and eccentric torques (normalised to isometric values) than the extensors. Muscle volume explained a significant part of the inter-individual differences in strength in both extensors (isometric 71 %, concentric 30–31 %) and flexors (isometric 38 %, concentric 50–55 %). Notably, muscle size was related to knee flexor eccentric strength (r = 0.69–0.76; R2 = 48–58 %) but not extensor eccentric strength. Quadriceps and hamstrings volumes were moderately correlated (r = 0.64), with the majority of the variance in the size of one muscle (59 %) not explained by the size of the other muscle. The hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) volume ratio was correlated with the isometric (r = 0.45) and functional strength ratios (350° s−1, r = 0.56; 50° s−1, r = 0.34). Conclusions: Muscle size exhibited a differential influence on knee extensor and flexor eccentric strength. Quadriceps and hamstrings muscle size was related, and the H:Q size ratio contributed to their strength ratios. Muscle size imbalances contribute to functional imbalances and these findings support the use of hamstrings strength training with an emphasis on hypertrophic adaptations for reducing injury risk.

KW - Hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio

KW - Isokinetic dynamometer

KW - Magnetic resonance imaging

KW - Maximal strength

KW - Muscle volume

KW - Torque-velocity relationship

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