Zn+ or both Zn+ and O+ ions were implanted in porous anatase TiO2 films prepared by sol-gel method and subsequently annealed in N2 or O2 atmosphere. The results were compared with that obtained after Ar+ ion implantation and subsequent annealing. The samples were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Optical absorption and electronic states were characterized by photothermal deflection spectrometry (PDS) and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS). The porous film was densified by Zn+ ion implantation up to the ion penetration depth. After the subsequent annealing at 800 °C the phase transformation from anatase to rutile accompanied with grain growth up to the film thickness was observed. In addition, the phase transformation was not induced by the annealing up to 800 °C with or without preceding Ar+ ion implantation. Thus, the implanted impurity Zn assisted the phase transformation. Annealing in O2 tends to reduce the rate of phase transformation and create ZnTiO3. Optical absorption above the photon energy of 2.9 eV was increased remarkably by the Zn+ or Zn+ and O+ ion implantation and subsequent annealing. EELS spectra of the Zn+ implanted and annealed sample is consistent with the results of PDS. The change in the optical absorption above 2.9 eV is due to the phase transformation.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms|
|Publication status||Published - 2000 Jun|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Surfaces and Interfaces