Study on the foaming of CaO-SiO2-FeO slags: Part II. Dimensional analysis and foaming in iron and steelmaking processes

Kimihisa Ito, R. J. Fruehan

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94 Citations (Scopus)


An empirical equation for the foaming index Σ of a CaO-SiO2-FeO slag was obtained by dimensional analysis. The effect of second-phase particles on slag foaming was well described by calculating the viscosity of the mixture using the modified Einstein equation. The anticipated foaming in basic oxygen furnace (BOF), electric arc furnace (EAF), and bath-smelting processes was estimated using the parameter Σ for various operating conditions and slag compositions. For BOF operations, it is predicted that foaming is most extreme in the middle of the blow, and a stable foam in EAF is achieved with less basic slags with low FeO contents. For bath smelting, foam heights of 5 m are possible, and a higher degree of prereduction prior to smelting will reduce foaming (because of smaller gas evolution) and possibly increase production rates. Running the process at a higher pressure will also reduce foam heights, because the volume of gas generated is less.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)515-521
Number of pages7
JournalMetallurgical Transactions B
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1989 Aug 1
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)


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