Phospholipid vesicles encapsulating purified hemoglobin [Hb vesicles (HbV); diameter 259 ± 82 mm; oxygen affinity 31 mm Hg; [Hb] 5 and 10 g/dL] were developed to provide oxygen-carrying capacity to plasma expanders. Their function as a blood replacement was tested in the subcutaneous microvasculature of awake hamsters during severe hemodilution in which 80% of the red blood cell mass was substituted with suspensions of the vesicles in 5% human serum albumin (HSA) solution. Vesicles were tested with membranes that were unmodified (HbV/HSA) or conjugated with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) on the vesicular surface (PEG-HbV/HSA). The viscosity of 10 g/dL HbV/HSA was 8 cP at 358 s-1 owing to the intervesicular aggregation, while that of 10 g/dL PEG-HbV/HSA was 3.5 cP, since PEG chains inhibit aggregation. Both materials yielded normal mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and blood gas parameters at all levels of exchange, which could not be achieved with HSA alone. Subcutaneous microvascular studies showed that PEG-HbV/HSA significantly improved microhemodynamic conditions (flow rate, functional capillary density, vessel diameter, and oxygen tension) relative to unmodified HbV/HSA. Even though the enhancement of PEG modification did not achieved that functional characteristics of the blood-perfused microcirulation, PEG reduced vesicular aggregation and viscosity, improving microvascular perfusion relative to the unmodified type. These results highlight the significance of microvascular analysis in the design of red cell substitutes and the necessity of surface modification of HbV to prevent aggregation.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Journal of Biomedical Materials Research|
|Publication status||Published - 1998 Apr|
- Red cell substitute
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering