As the heart failure is caused by the decrease in the myocardial contraction, the direct mechanical myocardial assistance in response to physiological demand, that is, the synchronous support of the contractile function from outside of the heart, might be effective. The purpose of this study was to develop an artificial myocardium which was capable of supporting the cardiac contraction directly by using the shape memory alloy fibres based on nanotechnology. Some methodologies using novel devices other than the artificial hearts are proposed so far with severe heart disease. However, it was also anticipated that the decrease in cardiac functions owing to the diastolic disability might be caused by using those ‘static’ devices. Then, this study was focused on an artificial myocardium using shape memory alloy fibres with a diameter of 100 – 150 um, and the authors examined its mechanism in a mock circulatory system as well as in animal experiments using goats. Basic characteristics of the material were evaluated prior to the hydrodynamic or hemodynamic examination using a mock ventricular model. The results were as follows: a) The length of the structure was able to be adjusted so that the system could wrap the whole heart effectively. b) In the hydrodynamic study using the mock circulatory system, the myocardial system was able to pump a flow against the afterload of arterial pressure level. c) In the animal experiments, aortic pressure and flow rate were elevated by 7 and 15% respectively by the mechanical assistance of the artificial myocardium, which was driven synchronising with the electrocardiogram, and also, d) The anatomically-identical shape of the artificial myocardium might be more effective for the assistance. In conclusion, it was indicated that this controllable artificial myocardial support system was effective for the mechanical cardiac support for the chronic heart failure.