Technical principles of atemi-waza in the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata in judo

From a viewpoint of jujutsu like atemi-waza. a broad perspective of application in honoured self-defence training

Fumiaki Shishida, Masanori Sakaguchi, Tadayuki Satoh, Yasuo Kawakami

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and Study Aim: Conventionally martial arts renaissance can be combined with the creation of jūdō by Jigoro Kano. A symbolic date may be the establishment of a Kōdōkan (1882). Further expansion not only of Japanese martial arts is the result of the intellectual effort and physical training of many generations of experts around the world. The purpose of this study is to verify the hypothesis that the true is the opinion of Kenji Tomiki that “atemi-waza (striking technique) is, in principle, an extension of nage-waza (throwing technique)”. Material and Methods: Verification of the hypothesis was based on three issues: (1) to make a technical analysis of Kotani & Otaki’s study, chosen among the seven previous studies, which describe the teaching of the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata, advocated by Jigoro Kano; (2) to demonstrate the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata, based on the interpretation by Kenji Tomiki, who referred to the unique relationship between the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata and the atemi-waza, and to analyze its video image in terms of technique and biomechanics; (3) to clarify the technical principles of the atemi-waza in jujusu by synthesizing both of the above mentioned. Results: The previous study reports that the technical principles in which tori (a person who executes a technique), who touches uke (a person to whom a technique is executed) softly with his palm, and walks, defeats uke, who has turned into a solid matter, reveal the concept of “softness controls hardness,” to which Kano attached great importance. The interpretation in terms of biomechanics suggested, in a scene where tori makes ceaseless pushing with his palm, followed by consecutive walking. This is the reason of uke’s retreat becoming difficult gradually, and thus uke is made to walk with much shorter steps, is because tori has delicate controls over the powers on the thumb or little finger. By so doing, uke’s rotation movement on the chest is hindered, and because uke is unable to reflect on inborn movement or walking. In a scene where jizo-tashi occurs, uke is forced to lose his balance backwards, to a great extent, and as the ground reaction force gradually shifts forward. The backward moment around the uke’s centre of gravity applied by tori ’s palm, uke is unable to cancel out the reverse moment from the ground reaction force, and thus we finally observed that uke fell off, his centre of gravity being rotated, and moving backwards. This movement is considered to be jizo-taoshi. Conclusions: Kano argues that uke will surely fall down if tori pushes ceaselessly in an effective direction, whereas Tomiki analyses this movement precisely, focusing on the palm’s force, changing its direction (angle), working on in one-point-one direction, just like the atemi-waza. The essence of Tomiki’s discovery is in the fact that the unique character of atemi-waza in judo lies in the movement where uke is made to fall down by tori’s movement of soft-touched palm and his manipulation and ceaseless movement of the body. This is interpreted as a sequence of “touch & push, push & fall down, and touch & fall down.” This leads to the feasibility of realising randori (free practice) with atemi-waza, which has been an ideal task sought by Kano. Atemi-waza fills the honoured self-defence algorithm when the soft means of counteracting are ineffective.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)255-269
Number of pages15
JournalArchives of Budo
Volume13
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan 1

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Martial Arts
Touch
Gravitation
Biomechanical Phenomena
Walking
Physical Exertion
Thumb
Hardness
Fingers
Teaching
Thorax
Direction compound

Keywords

  • Biomechanics
  • Hideichi Nagaoka
  • Innovative agonology
  • Jigoro Kano
  • Kenji Tomiki
  • Sumiyuki Kotani

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

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title = "Technical principles of atemi-waza in the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata in judo: From a viewpoint of jujutsu like atemi-waza. a broad perspective of application in honoured self-defence training",
abstract = "Background and Study Aim: Conventionally martial arts renaissance can be combined with the creation of jūdō by Jigoro Kano. A symbolic date may be the establishment of a Kōdōkan (1882). Further expansion not only of Japanese martial arts is the result of the intellectual effort and physical training of many generations of experts around the world. The purpose of this study is to verify the hypothesis that the true is the opinion of Kenji Tomiki that “atemi-waza (striking technique) is, in principle, an extension of nage-waza (throwing technique)”. Material and Methods: Verification of the hypothesis was based on three issues: (1) to make a technical analysis of Kotani & Otaki’s study, chosen among the seven previous studies, which describe the teaching of the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata, advocated by Jigoro Kano; (2) to demonstrate the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata, based on the interpretation by Kenji Tomiki, who referred to the unique relationship between the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata and the atemi-waza, and to analyze its video image in terms of technique and biomechanics; (3) to clarify the technical principles of the atemi-waza in jujusu by synthesizing both of the above mentioned. Results: The previous study reports that the technical principles in which tori (a person who executes a technique), who touches uke (a person to whom a technique is executed) softly with his palm, and walks, defeats uke, who has turned into a solid matter, reveal the concept of “softness controls hardness,” to which Kano attached great importance. The interpretation in terms of biomechanics suggested, in a scene where tori makes ceaseless pushing with his palm, followed by consecutive walking. This is the reason of uke’s retreat becoming difficult gradually, and thus uke is made to walk with much shorter steps, is because tori has delicate controls over the powers on the thumb or little finger. By so doing, uke’s rotation movement on the chest is hindered, and because uke is unable to reflect on inborn movement or walking. In a scene where jizo-tashi occurs, uke is forced to lose his balance backwards, to a great extent, and as the ground reaction force gradually shifts forward. The backward moment around the uke’s centre of gravity applied by tori ’s palm, uke is unable to cancel out the reverse moment from the ground reaction force, and thus we finally observed that uke fell off, his centre of gravity being rotated, and moving backwards. This movement is considered to be jizo-taoshi. Conclusions: Kano argues that uke will surely fall down if tori pushes ceaselessly in an effective direction, whereas Tomiki analyses this movement precisely, focusing on the palm’s force, changing its direction (angle), working on in one-point-one direction, just like the atemi-waza. The essence of Tomiki’s discovery is in the fact that the unique character of atemi-waza in judo lies in the movement where uke is made to fall down by tori’s movement of soft-touched palm and his manipulation and ceaseless movement of the body. This is interpreted as a sequence of “touch & push, push & fall down, and touch & fall down.” This leads to the feasibility of realising randori (free practice) with atemi-waza, which has been an ideal task sought by Kano. Atemi-waza fills the honoured self-defence algorithm when the soft means of counteracting are ineffective.",
keywords = "Biomechanics, Hideichi Nagaoka, Innovative agonology, Jigoro Kano, Kenji Tomiki, Sumiyuki Kotani",
author = "Fumiaki Shishida and Masanori Sakaguchi and Tadayuki Satoh and Yasuo Kawakami",
year = "2017",
month = "1",
day = "1",
language = "English",
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pages = "255--269",
journal = "Archives of Budo",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Technical principles of atemi-waza in the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata in judo

T2 - From a viewpoint of jujutsu like atemi-waza. a broad perspective of application in honoured self-defence training

AU - Shishida, Fumiaki

AU - Sakaguchi, Masanori

AU - Satoh, Tadayuki

AU - Kawakami, Yasuo

PY - 2017/1/1

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N2 - Background and Study Aim: Conventionally martial arts renaissance can be combined with the creation of jūdō by Jigoro Kano. A symbolic date may be the establishment of a Kōdōkan (1882). Further expansion not only of Japanese martial arts is the result of the intellectual effort and physical training of many generations of experts around the world. The purpose of this study is to verify the hypothesis that the true is the opinion of Kenji Tomiki that “atemi-waza (striking technique) is, in principle, an extension of nage-waza (throwing technique)”. Material and Methods: Verification of the hypothesis was based on three issues: (1) to make a technical analysis of Kotani & Otaki’s study, chosen among the seven previous studies, which describe the teaching of the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata, advocated by Jigoro Kano; (2) to demonstrate the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata, based on the interpretation by Kenji Tomiki, who referred to the unique relationship between the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata and the atemi-waza, and to analyze its video image in terms of technique and biomechanics; (3) to clarify the technical principles of the atemi-waza in jujusu by synthesizing both of the above mentioned. Results: The previous study reports that the technical principles in which tori (a person who executes a technique), who touches uke (a person to whom a technique is executed) softly with his palm, and walks, defeats uke, who has turned into a solid matter, reveal the concept of “softness controls hardness,” to which Kano attached great importance. The interpretation in terms of biomechanics suggested, in a scene where tori makes ceaseless pushing with his palm, followed by consecutive walking. This is the reason of uke’s retreat becoming difficult gradually, and thus uke is made to walk with much shorter steps, is because tori has delicate controls over the powers on the thumb or little finger. By so doing, uke’s rotation movement on the chest is hindered, and because uke is unable to reflect on inborn movement or walking. In a scene where jizo-tashi occurs, uke is forced to lose his balance backwards, to a great extent, and as the ground reaction force gradually shifts forward. The backward moment around the uke’s centre of gravity applied by tori ’s palm, uke is unable to cancel out the reverse moment from the ground reaction force, and thus we finally observed that uke fell off, his centre of gravity being rotated, and moving backwards. This movement is considered to be jizo-taoshi. Conclusions: Kano argues that uke will surely fall down if tori pushes ceaselessly in an effective direction, whereas Tomiki analyses this movement precisely, focusing on the palm’s force, changing its direction (angle), working on in one-point-one direction, just like the atemi-waza. The essence of Tomiki’s discovery is in the fact that the unique character of atemi-waza in judo lies in the movement where uke is made to fall down by tori’s movement of soft-touched palm and his manipulation and ceaseless movement of the body. This is interpreted as a sequence of “touch & push, push & fall down, and touch & fall down.” This leads to the feasibility of realising randori (free practice) with atemi-waza, which has been an ideal task sought by Kano. Atemi-waza fills the honoured self-defence algorithm when the soft means of counteracting are ineffective.

AB - Background and Study Aim: Conventionally martial arts renaissance can be combined with the creation of jūdō by Jigoro Kano. A symbolic date may be the establishment of a Kōdōkan (1882). Further expansion not only of Japanese martial arts is the result of the intellectual effort and physical training of many generations of experts around the world. The purpose of this study is to verify the hypothesis that the true is the opinion of Kenji Tomiki that “atemi-waza (striking technique) is, in principle, an extension of nage-waza (throwing technique)”. Material and Methods: Verification of the hypothesis was based on three issues: (1) to make a technical analysis of Kotani & Otaki’s study, chosen among the seven previous studies, which describe the teaching of the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata, advocated by Jigoro Kano; (2) to demonstrate the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata, based on the interpretation by Kenji Tomiki, who referred to the unique relationship between the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata and the atemi-waza, and to analyze its video image in terms of technique and biomechanics; (3) to clarify the technical principles of the atemi-waza in jujusu by synthesizing both of the above mentioned. Results: The previous study reports that the technical principles in which tori (a person who executes a technique), who touches uke (a person to whom a technique is executed) softly with his palm, and walks, defeats uke, who has turned into a solid matter, reveal the concept of “softness controls hardness,” to which Kano attached great importance. The interpretation in terms of biomechanics suggested, in a scene where tori makes ceaseless pushing with his palm, followed by consecutive walking. This is the reason of uke’s retreat becoming difficult gradually, and thus uke is made to walk with much shorter steps, is because tori has delicate controls over the powers on the thumb or little finger. By so doing, uke’s rotation movement on the chest is hindered, and because uke is unable to reflect on inborn movement or walking. In a scene where jizo-tashi occurs, uke is forced to lose his balance backwards, to a great extent, and as the ground reaction force gradually shifts forward. The backward moment around the uke’s centre of gravity applied by tori ’s palm, uke is unable to cancel out the reverse moment from the ground reaction force, and thus we finally observed that uke fell off, his centre of gravity being rotated, and moving backwards. This movement is considered to be jizo-taoshi. Conclusions: Kano argues that uke will surely fall down if tori pushes ceaselessly in an effective direction, whereas Tomiki analyses this movement precisely, focusing on the palm’s force, changing its direction (angle), working on in one-point-one direction, just like the atemi-waza. The essence of Tomiki’s discovery is in the fact that the unique character of atemi-waza in judo lies in the movement where uke is made to fall down by tori’s movement of soft-touched palm and his manipulation and ceaseless movement of the body. This is interpreted as a sequence of “touch & push, push & fall down, and touch & fall down.” This leads to the feasibility of realising randori (free practice) with atemi-waza, which has been an ideal task sought by Kano. Atemi-waza fills the honoured self-defence algorithm when the soft means of counteracting are ineffective.

KW - Biomechanics

KW - Hideichi Nagaoka

KW - Innovative agonology

KW - Jigoro Kano

KW - Kenji Tomiki

KW - Sumiyuki Kotani

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