The all-particle spectrum of primary cosmic rays in the wide energy range from 1014 to 1017 eV observed with the Tibet-III air-shower array

M. Amenomori, X. J. Bi, D. Chen, S. W. Cui, Danzengluobu, L. K. Ding, X. H. Ding, C. Fan, C. F. Feng, Zhaoyang Feng, Z. Y. Feng, X. Y. Gao, Q. X. Geng, H. W. Guo, H. H. He, M. He, K. Hibino, N. Hotta, Haibing Hu, H. B. HuJ. Huang, Q. Huang, H. Y. Jia, F. Kajino, K. Kasahara, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, K. Kawata, Labaciren, G. M. Le, A. F. Li, J. Y. Li, Y. Q. Lou, H. Lu, S. L. Lu, X. R. Meng, K. Mizutani, J. Mu, K. Munakata, A. Nagai, H. Nanjo, M. Nishizawa, M. Ohnishi, I. Ohta, H. Onuma, T. Ouchi, Shunsuke Ozawa, J. R. Ren, T. Saito, T. Y. Saito, M. Sakata, T. K. Sako, M. Shibata, A. Shiomi, T. Shirai, H. Sugimoto, M. Takita, Y. H. Tan, N. Tateyama, Shoji Torii, H. Tsuchiya, S. Udo, B. Wang, H. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. G. Wang, H. R. Wu, L. Xue, Y. Yamamoto, C. T. Yan, X. C. Yang, S. Yasue, Z. H. Ye, G. C. Yu, A. F. Yuan, T. Yuda, H. M. Zhang, J. L. Zhang, N. J. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Yi Zhang, Zhaxisangzhu, X. X. Zhou

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    160 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    We present an updated all-particle energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays in a wide range from 1014 to 1017 eV using 5.5 × 107 events collected from 2000 November through 2004 October by the Tibet-III air-shower array located 4300 m above sea level (an atmospheric depth of 606 g cm-2). The size spectrum exhibits a sharp knee at a corresponding primary energy around 4 PeV. This work uses increased statistics and new simulation calculations for the analysis. We discuss our extensive Monte Carlo calculations and the model dependencies involved in the final result, assuming interaction models QGSJETO1c and SIBYLL2.1, and heavy dominant (HD) and proton dominant (PD) primary composition models. Pure proton and pure iron primary models are also examined as extreme cases. A detector simulation was also performed to improve our accuracy in determining the size of the air showers and the energy of the primary particle. We confirmed that the all-particle energy spectra obtained under various plausible model parameters are not significantly different from each other, which was the expected result given the characteristics of the experiment at high altitude, where the air showers of the primary energy around the knee reach near-maximum development, with their features dominated by electromagnetic components, leading to a weak dependence on the interaction model or the primary mass. This is the highest statistical and the best systematics-controlled measurement covering the widest energy range around the knee energy region.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1165-1179
    Number of pages15
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume678
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2008 May 10

    Fingerprint

    primary cosmic rays
    Tibet
    cosmic ray showers
    cosmic ray
    air
    energy
    particle energy
    energy spectra
    protons
    high altitude
    sea level
    particle
    coverings
    simulation
    statistics
    interactions
    electromagnetism
    iron
    detectors

    Keywords

    • Cosmic rays
    • Methods: data analysis
    • Supernovae: general

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Space and Planetary Science

    Cite this

    The all-particle spectrum of primary cosmic rays in the wide energy range from 1014 to 1017 eV observed with the Tibet-III air-shower array. / Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Ding, X. H.; Fan, C.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Guo, H. W.; He, H. H.; He, M.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Huang, Q.; Jia, H. Y.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, A. F.; Li, J. Y.; Lou, Y. Q.; Lu, H.; Lu, S. L.; Meng, X. R.; Mizutani, K.; Mu, J.; Munakata, K.; Nagai, A.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Onuma, H.; Ouchi, T.; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Ren, J. R.; Saito, T.; Saito, T. Y.; Sakata, M.; Sako, T. K.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, Shoji; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. G.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yan, C. T.; Yang, X. C.; Yasue, S.; Ye, Z. H.; Yu, G. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Yuda, T.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, N. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 678, No. 2, 10.05.2008, p. 1165-1179.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Amenomori, M, Bi, XJ, Chen, D, Cui, SW, Danzengluobu, Ding, LK, Ding, XH, Fan, C, Feng, CF, Feng, Z, Feng, ZY, Gao, XY, Geng, QX, Guo, HW, He, HH, He, M, Hibino, K, Hotta, N, Hu, H, Hu, HB, Huang, J, Huang, Q, Jia, HY, Kajino, F, Kasahara, K, Katayose, Y, Kato, C, Kawata, K, Labaciren, Le, GM, Li, AF, Li, JY, Lou, YQ, Lu, H, Lu, SL, Meng, XR, Mizutani, K, Mu, J, Munakata, K, Nagai, A, Nanjo, H, Nishizawa, M, Ohnishi, M, Ohta, I, Onuma, H, Ouchi, T, Ozawa, S, Ren, JR, Saito, T, Saito, TY, Sakata, M, Sako, TK, Shibata, M, Shiomi, A, Shirai, T, Sugimoto, H, Takita, M, Tan, YH, Tateyama, N, Torii, S, Tsuchiya, H, Udo, S, Wang, B, Wang, H, Wang, X, Wang, Y, Wang, YG, Wu, HR, Xue, L, Yamamoto, Y, Yan, CT, Yang, XC, Yasue, S, Ye, ZH, Yu, GC, Yuan, AF, Yuda, T, Zhang, HM, Zhang, JL, Zhang, NJ, Zhang, XY, Zhang, Y, Zhang, Y, Zhaxisangzhu & Zhou, XX 2008, 'The all-particle spectrum of primary cosmic rays in the wide energy range from 1014 to 1017 eV observed with the Tibet-III air-shower array', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 678, no. 2, pp. 1165-1179. https://doi.org/10.1086/529514
    Amenomori, M. ; Bi, X. J. ; Chen, D. ; Cui, S. W. ; Danzengluobu ; Ding, L. K. ; Ding, X. H. ; Fan, C. ; Feng, C. F. ; Feng, Zhaoyang ; Feng, Z. Y. ; Gao, X. Y. ; Geng, Q. X. ; Guo, H. W. ; He, H. H. ; He, M. ; Hibino, K. ; Hotta, N. ; Hu, Haibing ; Hu, H. B. ; Huang, J. ; Huang, Q. ; Jia, H. Y. ; Kajino, F. ; Kasahara, K. ; Katayose, Y. ; Kato, C. ; Kawata, K. ; Labaciren ; Le, G. M. ; Li, A. F. ; Li, J. Y. ; Lou, Y. Q. ; Lu, H. ; Lu, S. L. ; Meng, X. R. ; Mizutani, K. ; Mu, J. ; Munakata, K. ; Nagai, A. ; Nanjo, H. ; Nishizawa, M. ; Ohnishi, M. ; Ohta, I. ; Onuma, H. ; Ouchi, T. ; Ozawa, Shunsuke ; Ren, J. R. ; Saito, T. ; Saito, T. Y. ; Sakata, M. ; Sako, T. K. ; Shibata, M. ; Shiomi, A. ; Shirai, T. ; Sugimoto, H. ; Takita, M. ; Tan, Y. H. ; Tateyama, N. ; Torii, Shoji ; Tsuchiya, H. ; Udo, S. ; Wang, B. ; Wang, H. ; Wang, X. ; Wang, Y. ; Wang, Y. G. ; Wu, H. R. ; Xue, L. ; Yamamoto, Y. ; Yan, C. T. ; Yang, X. C. ; Yasue, S. ; Ye, Z. H. ; Yu, G. C. ; Yuan, A. F. ; Yuda, T. ; Zhang, H. M. ; Zhang, J. L. ; Zhang, N. J. ; Zhang, X. Y. ; Zhang, Y. ; Zhang, Yi ; Zhaxisangzhu ; Zhou, X. X. / The all-particle spectrum of primary cosmic rays in the wide energy range from 1014 to 1017 eV observed with the Tibet-III air-shower array. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2008 ; Vol. 678, No. 2. pp. 1165-1179.
    @article{3423d9b53798429c9b96f0d1b1fb2def,
    title = "The all-particle spectrum of primary cosmic rays in the wide energy range from 1014 to 1017 eV observed with the Tibet-III air-shower array",
    abstract = "We present an updated all-particle energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays in a wide range from 1014 to 1017 eV using 5.5 × 107 events collected from 2000 November through 2004 October by the Tibet-III air-shower array located 4300 m above sea level (an atmospheric depth of 606 g cm-2). The size spectrum exhibits a sharp knee at a corresponding primary energy around 4 PeV. This work uses increased statistics and new simulation calculations for the analysis. We discuss our extensive Monte Carlo calculations and the model dependencies involved in the final result, assuming interaction models QGSJETO1c and SIBYLL2.1, and heavy dominant (HD) and proton dominant (PD) primary composition models. Pure proton and pure iron primary models are also examined as extreme cases. A detector simulation was also performed to improve our accuracy in determining the size of the air showers and the energy of the primary particle. We confirmed that the all-particle energy spectra obtained under various plausible model parameters are not significantly different from each other, which was the expected result given the characteristics of the experiment at high altitude, where the air showers of the primary energy around the knee reach near-maximum development, with their features dominated by electromagnetic components, leading to a weak dependence on the interaction model or the primary mass. This is the highest statistical and the best systematics-controlled measurement covering the widest energy range around the knee energy region.",
    keywords = "Cosmic rays, Methods: data analysis, Supernovae: general",
    author = "M. Amenomori and Bi, {X. J.} and D. Chen and Cui, {S. W.} and Danzengluobu and Ding, {L. K.} and Ding, {X. H.} and C. Fan and Feng, {C. F.} and Zhaoyang Feng and Feng, {Z. Y.} and Gao, {X. Y.} and Geng, {Q. X.} and Guo, {H. W.} and He, {H. H.} and M. He and K. Hibino and N. Hotta and Haibing Hu and Hu, {H. B.} and J. Huang and Q. Huang and Jia, {H. Y.} and F. Kajino and K. Kasahara and Y. Katayose and C. Kato and K. Kawata and Labaciren and Le, {G. M.} and Li, {A. F.} and Li, {J. Y.} and Lou, {Y. Q.} and H. Lu and Lu, {S. L.} and Meng, {X. R.} and K. Mizutani and J. Mu and K. Munakata and A. Nagai and H. Nanjo and M. Nishizawa and M. Ohnishi and I. Ohta and H. Onuma and T. Ouchi and Shunsuke Ozawa and Ren, {J. R.} and T. Saito and Saito, {T. Y.} and M. Sakata and Sako, {T. K.} and M. Shibata and A. Shiomi and T. Shirai and H. Sugimoto and M. Takita and Tan, {Y. H.} and N. Tateyama and Shoji Torii and H. Tsuchiya and S. Udo and B. Wang and H. Wang and X. Wang and Y. Wang and Wang, {Y. G.} and Wu, {H. R.} and L. Xue and Y. Yamamoto and Yan, {C. T.} and Yang, {X. C.} and S. Yasue and Ye, {Z. H.} and Yu, {G. C.} and Yuan, {A. F.} and T. Yuda and Zhang, {H. M.} and Zhang, {J. L.} and Zhang, {N. J.} and Zhang, {X. Y.} and Y. Zhang and Yi Zhang and Zhaxisangzhu and Zhou, {X. X.}",
    year = "2008",
    month = "5",
    day = "10",
    doi = "10.1086/529514",
    language = "English",
    volume = "678",
    pages = "1165--1179",
    journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
    issn = "0004-637X",
    publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
    number = "2",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The all-particle spectrum of primary cosmic rays in the wide energy range from 1014 to 1017 eV observed with the Tibet-III air-shower array

    AU - Amenomori, M.

    AU - Bi, X. J.

    AU - Chen, D.

    AU - Cui, S. W.

    AU - Danzengluobu,

    AU - Ding, L. K.

    AU - Ding, X. H.

    AU - Fan, C.

    AU - Feng, C. F.

    AU - Feng, Zhaoyang

    AU - Feng, Z. Y.

    AU - Gao, X. Y.

    AU - Geng, Q. X.

    AU - Guo, H. W.

    AU - He, H. H.

    AU - He, M.

    AU - Hibino, K.

    AU - Hotta, N.

    AU - Hu, Haibing

    AU - Hu, H. B.

    AU - Huang, J.

    AU - Huang, Q.

    AU - Jia, H. Y.

    AU - Kajino, F.

    AU - Kasahara, K.

    AU - Katayose, Y.

    AU - Kato, C.

    AU - Kawata, K.

    AU - Labaciren,

    AU - Le, G. M.

    AU - Li, A. F.

    AU - Li, J. Y.

    AU - Lou, Y. Q.

    AU - Lu, H.

    AU - Lu, S. L.

    AU - Meng, X. R.

    AU - Mizutani, K.

    AU - Mu, J.

    AU - Munakata, K.

    AU - Nagai, A.

    AU - Nanjo, H.

    AU - Nishizawa, M.

    AU - Ohnishi, M.

    AU - Ohta, I.

    AU - Onuma, H.

    AU - Ouchi, T.

    AU - Ozawa, Shunsuke

    AU - Ren, J. R.

    AU - Saito, T.

    AU - Saito, T. Y.

    AU - Sakata, M.

    AU - Sako, T. K.

    AU - Shibata, M.

    AU - Shiomi, A.

    AU - Shirai, T.

    AU - Sugimoto, H.

    AU - Takita, M.

    AU - Tan, Y. H.

    AU - Tateyama, N.

    AU - Torii, Shoji

    AU - Tsuchiya, H.

    AU - Udo, S.

    AU - Wang, B.

    AU - Wang, H.

    AU - Wang, X.

    AU - Wang, Y.

    AU - Wang, Y. G.

    AU - Wu, H. R.

    AU - Xue, L.

    AU - Yamamoto, Y.

    AU - Yan, C. T.

    AU - Yang, X. C.

    AU - Yasue, S.

    AU - Ye, Z. H.

    AU - Yu, G. C.

    AU - Yuan, A. F.

    AU - Yuda, T.

    AU - Zhang, H. M.

    AU - Zhang, J. L.

    AU - Zhang, N. J.

    AU - Zhang, X. Y.

    AU - Zhang, Y.

    AU - Zhang, Yi

    AU - Zhaxisangzhu,

    AU - Zhou, X. X.

    PY - 2008/5/10

    Y1 - 2008/5/10

    N2 - We present an updated all-particle energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays in a wide range from 1014 to 1017 eV using 5.5 × 107 events collected from 2000 November through 2004 October by the Tibet-III air-shower array located 4300 m above sea level (an atmospheric depth of 606 g cm-2). The size spectrum exhibits a sharp knee at a corresponding primary energy around 4 PeV. This work uses increased statistics and new simulation calculations for the analysis. We discuss our extensive Monte Carlo calculations and the model dependencies involved in the final result, assuming interaction models QGSJETO1c and SIBYLL2.1, and heavy dominant (HD) and proton dominant (PD) primary composition models. Pure proton and pure iron primary models are also examined as extreme cases. A detector simulation was also performed to improve our accuracy in determining the size of the air showers and the energy of the primary particle. We confirmed that the all-particle energy spectra obtained under various plausible model parameters are not significantly different from each other, which was the expected result given the characteristics of the experiment at high altitude, where the air showers of the primary energy around the knee reach near-maximum development, with their features dominated by electromagnetic components, leading to a weak dependence on the interaction model or the primary mass. This is the highest statistical and the best systematics-controlled measurement covering the widest energy range around the knee energy region.

    AB - We present an updated all-particle energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays in a wide range from 1014 to 1017 eV using 5.5 × 107 events collected from 2000 November through 2004 October by the Tibet-III air-shower array located 4300 m above sea level (an atmospheric depth of 606 g cm-2). The size spectrum exhibits a sharp knee at a corresponding primary energy around 4 PeV. This work uses increased statistics and new simulation calculations for the analysis. We discuss our extensive Monte Carlo calculations and the model dependencies involved in the final result, assuming interaction models QGSJETO1c and SIBYLL2.1, and heavy dominant (HD) and proton dominant (PD) primary composition models. Pure proton and pure iron primary models are also examined as extreme cases. A detector simulation was also performed to improve our accuracy in determining the size of the air showers and the energy of the primary particle. We confirmed that the all-particle energy spectra obtained under various plausible model parameters are not significantly different from each other, which was the expected result given the characteristics of the experiment at high altitude, where the air showers of the primary energy around the knee reach near-maximum development, with their features dominated by electromagnetic components, leading to a weak dependence on the interaction model or the primary mass. This is the highest statistical and the best systematics-controlled measurement covering the widest energy range around the knee energy region.

    KW - Cosmic rays

    KW - Methods: data analysis

    KW - Supernovae: general

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=43949105822&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=43949105822&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1086/529514

    DO - 10.1086/529514

    M3 - Article

    AN - SCOPUS:43949105822

    VL - 678

    SP - 1165

    EP - 1179

    JO - Astrophysical Journal

    JF - Astrophysical Journal

    SN - 0004-637X

    IS - 2

    ER -