The ALPINE-ALMA [C ii] survey: Investigation of 10 galaxies at z ∼4.5 with [O ii] and [C ii] line emission - ISM properties and [O ii]-SFR relation

Brittany N. Vanderhoof*, A. L. Faisst, L. Shen, B. C. Lemaux, M. Béthermin, P. L. Capak, P. Cassata, O. Le Fèvre, D. Schaerer, J. Silverman, L. Yan, M. Boquien, R. Gal, J. Kartaltepe, L. M. Lubin, M. Dessauges-Zavadsky, Y. Fudamoto, M. Ginolfi, N. P. Hathi, G. C. JonesA. M. Koekemoer, D. Narayanan, M. Romano, M. Talia, D. Vergani, G. Zamorani

*Corresponding author for this work

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3 Citations (Scopus)


We present 10 main-sequence ALPINE galaxies (log (M/M⊙) = 9.2-11.1 and SFR=23-190M⊙yr-1) at z ∼4.5 with optical [O ii] measurements from Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopy and Subaru/MOIRCS narrow-band imaging. This is the largest such multiwavelength sample at these redshifts, combining various measurements in the ultraviolet, optical, and far-infrared including [C ii]158 μm line emission and dust continuum from ALMA and H α emission from Spitzer photometry. For the first time, this unique sample allows us to analyse the relation between [O ii] and total star-formation rate (SFR) and the interstellar medium (ISM) properties via [O ii]/[C ii] and [O ii]/H α luminosity ratios at z ∼4.5. The [O ii]-SFR relation at z ∼4.5 cannot be described using standard local descriptions, but is consistent with a metal-dependent relation assuming metallicities around 50 per cent solar. To explain the measured dust-corrected luminosity ratios of log (L[OII]/L[CII]) ∼ 0.98+0.21-0.22 and log (L[OII]/LHα) ∼ -0.22+0.13-0.15 for our sample, ionization parameters log (U) < -2 and electron densities log (ne/[cm-3])∼ 2.5-3 are required. The former is consistent with galaxies at z ∼2-3, however lower than at z > 6. The latter may be slightly higher than expected given the galaxies' specific SFR. The analysis of this pilot sample suggests that typical log (M/M⊙) > 9 galaxies at z ∼4.5 to have broadly similar ISM properties as their descendants at z ∼2 and suggest a strong evolution of ISM properties since the epoch of reionization at z > 6.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1303-1316
Number of pages14
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar 1


  • galaxies: evolution
  • galaxies: high-redshift
  • galaxies: ISM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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