The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] survey: Molecular gas budget in the early Universe as traced by [C II]

M. Dessauges-Zavadsky*, M. Ginolfi, F. Pozzi, M. Béthermin, O. Le Fèvre, S. Fujimoto, J. D. Silverman, G. C. Jones, L. Vallini, D. Schaerer, A. L. Faisst, Y. Khusanova, Y. Fudamoto, P. Cassata, F. Loiacono, P. L. Capak, L. Yan, R. Amorin, S. Bardelli, M. BoquienA. Cimatti, C. Gruppioni, N. P. Hathi, E. Ibar, A. M. Koekemoer, B. C. Lemaux, D. Narayanan, P. A. Oesch, G. Rodighiero, M. Romano, M. Talia, S. Toft, D. Vergani, G. Zamorani, E. Zucca

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


The molecular gas content of normal galaxies at z > 4 is poorly constrained because the commonly used molecular gas tracers become hard to detect at these high redshifts. We use the [C II] 158 μm luminosity, which was recently proposed as a molecular gas tracer, to estimate the molecular gas content in a large sample of main sequence star-forming galaxies at z = 4.4 - 5.9, with a median stellar mass of 109.7M·, drawn from the ALMA Large Program to INvestigate [C II] at Early times survey. The agreement between the molecular gas masses derived from [C II] luminosities, dynamical masses, and rest-frame 850 μm luminosities extrapolated from the rest-frame 158 μm continuum supports [C II] as a reliable tracer of molecular gas in our sample. We find a continuous decline of the molecular gas depletion timescale from z = 0 to z = 5.9, which reaches a mean value of (4.6 ± 0.8) × 108 yr at z ∼ 5.5, only a factor of between two and three shorter than in present-day galaxies. This suggests a mild enhancement of the star formation efficiency toward high redshifts. Our estimates also show that the previously reported rise in the molecular gas fraction flattens off above z ∼ 3.7 to achieve a mean value of 63%±3% over z = 4.4 - 5.9. This redshift evolution of the gas fraction is in line with that of the specific star formation rate. We use multi-epoch abundance-matching to follow the gas fraction evolution across cosmic time of progenitors of z = 0 Milky Way-like galaxies in ∼1013M· halos and of more massive z = 0 galaxies in ∼1014M· halos. Interestingly, the former progenitors show a monotonic increase of the gas fraction with redshift, while the latter show a steep rise from z = 0 to z ∼ 2 followed by a constant gas fraction from z ∼ 2 to z = 5.9. We discuss three possible effects, namely outflows, a pause in gas supply, and over-efficient star formation, which may jointly contribute to the gas fraction plateau of the latter massive galaxies.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA5
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Nov 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Galaxies: ISM
  • Galaxies: evolution
  • Galaxies: high-redshift
  • ISM: molecules

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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