The control of reproductive physiology and behavior by gonadotropin- inhibitory hormone

Takayoshi Ubuka, Nicolette L. McGuire, Rebecca M. Calisi, Nicole Perfito, George E. Bentley

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    36 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) controls the reproductive physiology and behavior of vertebrates by stimulating synthesis and release of gonadotropin from the pituitary gland. In 2000, another hypothalamic neuropeptide, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), was discovered in quail and found to be an inhibiting factor for gonadotropin release. GnIH homologs are present in the brains of vertebrates, including birds, mammals, amphibians, and fish. These peptides, categorized as RF amide-related peptides (RFRPs), possess a characteristic LPXRF-amide (X = L or Q) motif at their C-termini. GnIH/RFRP precursor mRNA encodes a polypeptide that is possibly cleaved into three mature peptides in birds and two in mammals. The names of these peptides are GnIH, GnIH-related peptide-1 (GnIH-RP-1) and GnIH-RP-2 in birds, and RFRP-1 and RFRP-3 in mammals. GnIH/RFRP is synthesized in neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in birds and the dorsomedial hypothalamic area in mammals. GnIH neurons project to the median eminence, thus providing a functional neuroanatomical infrastructure to regulate anterior pituitary function. In quail, GnIH inhibits gonadal activity by decreasing synthesis and release of gonadotropin. The widespread distribution of GnIH/RFRP immunoreactive fibers in all animals tested suggests various actions within the brain. In accordance, GnIH/RFRP receptor mRNA is also expressed widely in the brain and the pituitary. GnIH/RFRP immunoreactive axon terminals are in probable contact with GnRH neurons in birds and mammals, and we recently demonstrated expression of GnIH receptor mRNA in GnRH-I and GnRH-II neurons in European starlings. Thus, GnIH/RFRP may also inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release by inhibiting GnRH neurons in addition to having direct actions on the pituitary gland. Intracerebroventricular administration of GnIH/RFRP further inhibits reproductive behaviors in songbirds and rodents, possibly via direct actions on the GnRH system. The expression of GnIH/RFRP is regulated by melatonin which is an internal indicator of day length in vertebrates. Stress stimuli also regulate the expression of GnIH/RFRP in songbirds and rodents. Accordingly, GnIH/RFRP may serve as a transducer of environmental information and social interactions into endogenous physiology and behavior of the animal. Recently, it was shown that GnIH/RFRP and its receptor are also expressed in the gonads of birds, rodents and primates. In sum, the existing data suggest that GnIH/RFRP is an important mediator of reproductive function acting at the level of the brain, pituitary, and the gonad in birds and mammals.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)560-569
    Number of pages10
    JournalIntegrative and Comparative Biology
    Volume48
    Issue number5
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2008 Nov

    Fingerprint

    animal reproduction
    reproductive behavior
    gonadotropins
    amides
    hormones
    peptides
    gonadotropin-releasing hormone
    gonadotropin release
    mammals
    birds
    neurons
    brain
    rodents
    pituitary gland
    vertebrates
    songbirds
    quails
    synthesis
    gonads
    paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Animal Science and Zoology
    • Plant Science

    Cite this

    The control of reproductive physiology and behavior by gonadotropin- inhibitory hormone. / Ubuka, Takayoshi; McGuire, Nicolette L.; Calisi, Rebecca M.; Perfito, Nicole; Bentley, George E.

    In: Integrative and Comparative Biology, Vol. 48, No. 5, 11.2008, p. 560-569.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Ubuka, Takayoshi ; McGuire, Nicolette L. ; Calisi, Rebecca M. ; Perfito, Nicole ; Bentley, George E. / The control of reproductive physiology and behavior by gonadotropin- inhibitory hormone. In: Integrative and Comparative Biology. 2008 ; Vol. 48, No. 5. pp. 560-569.
    @article{c12e33b7e5b54944809a5e5a4a7eba9a,
    title = "The control of reproductive physiology and behavior by gonadotropin- inhibitory hormone",
    abstract = "Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) controls the reproductive physiology and behavior of vertebrates by stimulating synthesis and release of gonadotropin from the pituitary gland. In 2000, another hypothalamic neuropeptide, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), was discovered in quail and found to be an inhibiting factor for gonadotropin release. GnIH homologs are present in the brains of vertebrates, including birds, mammals, amphibians, and fish. These peptides, categorized as RF amide-related peptides (RFRPs), possess a characteristic LPXRF-amide (X = L or Q) motif at their C-termini. GnIH/RFRP precursor mRNA encodes a polypeptide that is possibly cleaved into three mature peptides in birds and two in mammals. The names of these peptides are GnIH, GnIH-related peptide-1 (GnIH-RP-1) and GnIH-RP-2 in birds, and RFRP-1 and RFRP-3 in mammals. GnIH/RFRP is synthesized in neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in birds and the dorsomedial hypothalamic area in mammals. GnIH neurons project to the median eminence, thus providing a functional neuroanatomical infrastructure to regulate anterior pituitary function. In quail, GnIH inhibits gonadal activity by decreasing synthesis and release of gonadotropin. The widespread distribution of GnIH/RFRP immunoreactive fibers in all animals tested suggests various actions within the brain. In accordance, GnIH/RFRP receptor mRNA is also expressed widely in the brain and the pituitary. GnIH/RFRP immunoreactive axon terminals are in probable contact with GnRH neurons in birds and mammals, and we recently demonstrated expression of GnIH receptor mRNA in GnRH-I and GnRH-II neurons in European starlings. Thus, GnIH/RFRP may also inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release by inhibiting GnRH neurons in addition to having direct actions on the pituitary gland. Intracerebroventricular administration of GnIH/RFRP further inhibits reproductive behaviors in songbirds and rodents, possibly via direct actions on the GnRH system. The expression of GnIH/RFRP is regulated by melatonin which is an internal indicator of day length in vertebrates. Stress stimuli also regulate the expression of GnIH/RFRP in songbirds and rodents. Accordingly, GnIH/RFRP may serve as a transducer of environmental information and social interactions into endogenous physiology and behavior of the animal. Recently, it was shown that GnIH/RFRP and its receptor are also expressed in the gonads of birds, rodents and primates. In sum, the existing data suggest that GnIH/RFRP is an important mediator of reproductive function acting at the level of the brain, pituitary, and the gonad in birds and mammals.",
    author = "Takayoshi Ubuka and McGuire, {Nicolette L.} and Calisi, {Rebecca M.} and Nicole Perfito and Bentley, {George E.}",
    year = "2008",
    month = "11",
    doi = "10.1093/icb/icn019",
    language = "English",
    volume = "48",
    pages = "560--569",
    journal = "Integrative and Comparative Biology",
    issn = "1540-7063",
    publisher = "Oxford University Press",
    number = "5",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The control of reproductive physiology and behavior by gonadotropin- inhibitory hormone

    AU - Ubuka, Takayoshi

    AU - McGuire, Nicolette L.

    AU - Calisi, Rebecca M.

    AU - Perfito, Nicole

    AU - Bentley, George E.

    PY - 2008/11

    Y1 - 2008/11

    N2 - Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) controls the reproductive physiology and behavior of vertebrates by stimulating synthesis and release of gonadotropin from the pituitary gland. In 2000, another hypothalamic neuropeptide, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), was discovered in quail and found to be an inhibiting factor for gonadotropin release. GnIH homologs are present in the brains of vertebrates, including birds, mammals, amphibians, and fish. These peptides, categorized as RF amide-related peptides (RFRPs), possess a characteristic LPXRF-amide (X = L or Q) motif at their C-termini. GnIH/RFRP precursor mRNA encodes a polypeptide that is possibly cleaved into three mature peptides in birds and two in mammals. The names of these peptides are GnIH, GnIH-related peptide-1 (GnIH-RP-1) and GnIH-RP-2 in birds, and RFRP-1 and RFRP-3 in mammals. GnIH/RFRP is synthesized in neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in birds and the dorsomedial hypothalamic area in mammals. GnIH neurons project to the median eminence, thus providing a functional neuroanatomical infrastructure to regulate anterior pituitary function. In quail, GnIH inhibits gonadal activity by decreasing synthesis and release of gonadotropin. The widespread distribution of GnIH/RFRP immunoreactive fibers in all animals tested suggests various actions within the brain. In accordance, GnIH/RFRP receptor mRNA is also expressed widely in the brain and the pituitary. GnIH/RFRP immunoreactive axon terminals are in probable contact with GnRH neurons in birds and mammals, and we recently demonstrated expression of GnIH receptor mRNA in GnRH-I and GnRH-II neurons in European starlings. Thus, GnIH/RFRP may also inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release by inhibiting GnRH neurons in addition to having direct actions on the pituitary gland. Intracerebroventricular administration of GnIH/RFRP further inhibits reproductive behaviors in songbirds and rodents, possibly via direct actions on the GnRH system. The expression of GnIH/RFRP is regulated by melatonin which is an internal indicator of day length in vertebrates. Stress stimuli also regulate the expression of GnIH/RFRP in songbirds and rodents. Accordingly, GnIH/RFRP may serve as a transducer of environmental information and social interactions into endogenous physiology and behavior of the animal. Recently, it was shown that GnIH/RFRP and its receptor are also expressed in the gonads of birds, rodents and primates. In sum, the existing data suggest that GnIH/RFRP is an important mediator of reproductive function acting at the level of the brain, pituitary, and the gonad in birds and mammals.

    AB - Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) controls the reproductive physiology and behavior of vertebrates by stimulating synthesis and release of gonadotropin from the pituitary gland. In 2000, another hypothalamic neuropeptide, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), was discovered in quail and found to be an inhibiting factor for gonadotropin release. GnIH homologs are present in the brains of vertebrates, including birds, mammals, amphibians, and fish. These peptides, categorized as RF amide-related peptides (RFRPs), possess a characteristic LPXRF-amide (X = L or Q) motif at their C-termini. GnIH/RFRP precursor mRNA encodes a polypeptide that is possibly cleaved into three mature peptides in birds and two in mammals. The names of these peptides are GnIH, GnIH-related peptide-1 (GnIH-RP-1) and GnIH-RP-2 in birds, and RFRP-1 and RFRP-3 in mammals. GnIH/RFRP is synthesized in neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in birds and the dorsomedial hypothalamic area in mammals. GnIH neurons project to the median eminence, thus providing a functional neuroanatomical infrastructure to regulate anterior pituitary function. In quail, GnIH inhibits gonadal activity by decreasing synthesis and release of gonadotropin. The widespread distribution of GnIH/RFRP immunoreactive fibers in all animals tested suggests various actions within the brain. In accordance, GnIH/RFRP receptor mRNA is also expressed widely in the brain and the pituitary. GnIH/RFRP immunoreactive axon terminals are in probable contact with GnRH neurons in birds and mammals, and we recently demonstrated expression of GnIH receptor mRNA in GnRH-I and GnRH-II neurons in European starlings. Thus, GnIH/RFRP may also inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release by inhibiting GnRH neurons in addition to having direct actions on the pituitary gland. Intracerebroventricular administration of GnIH/RFRP further inhibits reproductive behaviors in songbirds and rodents, possibly via direct actions on the GnRH system. The expression of GnIH/RFRP is regulated by melatonin which is an internal indicator of day length in vertebrates. Stress stimuli also regulate the expression of GnIH/RFRP in songbirds and rodents. Accordingly, GnIH/RFRP may serve as a transducer of environmental information and social interactions into endogenous physiology and behavior of the animal. Recently, it was shown that GnIH/RFRP and its receptor are also expressed in the gonads of birds, rodents and primates. In sum, the existing data suggest that GnIH/RFRP is an important mediator of reproductive function acting at the level of the brain, pituitary, and the gonad in birds and mammals.

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=57349198930&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=57349198930&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1093/icb/icn019

    DO - 10.1093/icb/icn019

    M3 - Article

    C2 - 20607134

    AN - SCOPUS:57349198930

    VL - 48

    SP - 560

    EP - 569

    JO - Integrative and Comparative Biology

    JF - Integrative and Comparative Biology

    SN - 1540-7063

    IS - 5

    ER -