The cosmic-ray energy spectrum between 1014.5 and 1016.3 eV covering the "knee" region

M. Amenomori, Z. Cao, B. Z. Dai, L. K. Ding, Y. X. Feng, Z. Y. Feng, K. Hibino, N. Hotta, Q. Huang, A. X. Huo, H. Y. Jia, G. Z. Jiang, S. Q. Jiao, F. Kajino, K. Kasahara, Labaciren, S. M. Liu, D. M. Mei, L. Meng, X. R. MengMimaciren, K. Mizutanin, J. Mu, H. Nanjo, M. Nlshizawa, M. Ohnishi, I. Ohta, T. Ouchi, J. R. Ren, T. U. Saito, M. Sakata, Z. Z. Shi, M. Shibata, A. Shiomi, T. Shirai, H. Sugimoto, X. X. Sun, K. Taira, Y. H. Tan, N. Tateyama, Shoji Torii, H. Wang, C. Z. Wen, Y. Yamamoto, G. C. Yu, P. Yuan, T. Yuda, C. S. Zhang, H. M. Zhang, L. Zhang, Zhasang, Zhaxiciren, W. D. Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The Tibet array is the first air shower detector to search for 10 TeV gamma-ray point sources. This array also has a high sensitivity to air showers initiated by cosmic rays around the "knee" of the all-particle spectrum at 1015-1016 eV, with quite small ambiguity for the energy estimation, since the development of air showers in this high energy region is close to maximum at Yangbajing altitude (4300 m above sea level). Using the data set taken with the Tibet array in the period from 1990 October through 1993 July, we obtained the differential energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays between 3 × 1014 and 2 × 1016 eV covering the knee region. The overall spectrum obtained does not resemble a single power law and shows a gradual steepening of the slope at energies around 1015.25 eV. The spectrum is expressed as J(E0) = 1.5 × 10-20(E0/1014.75 eV)-2.60±0.04(m-2 s-1 sr-1 eV-1) at E0 < 1014.75 eV and J(E0) = 1.2 × 10-23(E0/1015.85 eV)-3.00±0.05(m-2 s-1 sr-1 eV-1) at E0 > 1015.85 eV, where this changes gradually between 1014.75 and 1015.85 eV and takes the value J(E0) = 6.7 × 10-22 (m-2 s-1 sr-1 eV-1) at E0 = 1015.25 eV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)408-414
Number of pages7
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume461
Issue number1 PART I
Publication statusPublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

cosmic ray showers
cosmic ray
cosmic rays
Tibet
energy spectra
coverings
energy
primary cosmic rays
air
sea level
ambiguity
point sources
gamma rays
slopes
point source
power law
sensitivity
detectors

Keywords

  • Cosmic rays

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Amenomori, M., Cao, Z., Dai, B. Z., Ding, L. K., Feng, Y. X., Feng, Z. Y., ... Zhou, W. D. (1996). The cosmic-ray energy spectrum between 1014.5 and 1016.3 eV covering the "knee" region. Astrophysical Journal, 461(1 PART I), 408-414.

The cosmic-ray energy spectrum between 1014.5 and 1016.3 eV covering the "knee" region. / Amenomori, M.; Cao, Z.; Dai, B. Z.; Ding, L. K.; Feng, Y. X.; Feng, Z. Y.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Huang, Q.; Huo, A. X.; Jia, H. Y.; Jiang, G. Z.; Jiao, S. Q.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Labaciren; Liu, S. M.; Mei, D. M.; Meng, L.; Meng, X. R.; Mimaciren; Mizutanin, K.; Mu, J.; Nanjo, H.; Nlshizawa, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Ouchi, T.; Ren, J. R.; Saito, T. U.; Sakata, M.; Shi, Z. Z.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Sun, X. X.; Taira, K.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, Shoji; Wang, H.; Wen, C. Z.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yu, G. C.; Yuan, P.; Yuda, T.; Zhang, C. S.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhasang; Zhaxiciren; Zhou, W. D.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 461, No. 1 PART I, 1996, p. 408-414.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Amenomori, M, Cao, Z, Dai, BZ, Ding, LK, Feng, YX, Feng, ZY, Hibino, K, Hotta, N, Huang, Q, Huo, AX, Jia, HY, Jiang, GZ, Jiao, SQ, Kajino, F, Kasahara, K, Labaciren, Liu, SM, Mei, DM, Meng, L, Meng, XR, Mimaciren, Mizutanin, K, Mu, J, Nanjo, H, Nlshizawa, M, Ohnishi, M, Ohta, I, Ouchi, T, Ren, JR, Saito, TU, Sakata, M, Shi, ZZ, Shibata, M, Shiomi, A, Shirai, T, Sugimoto, H, Sun, XX, Taira, K, Tan, YH, Tateyama, N, Torii, S, Wang, H, Wen, CZ, Yamamoto, Y, Yu, GC, Yuan, P, Yuda, T, Zhang, CS, Zhang, HM, Zhang, L, Zhasang, Zhaxiciren & Zhou, WD 1996, 'The cosmic-ray energy spectrum between 1014.5 and 1016.3 eV covering the "knee" region', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 461, no. 1 PART I, pp. 408-414.
Amenomori M, Cao Z, Dai BZ, Ding LK, Feng YX, Feng ZY et al. The cosmic-ray energy spectrum between 1014.5 and 1016.3 eV covering the "knee" region. Astrophysical Journal. 1996;461(1 PART I):408-414.
Amenomori, M. ; Cao, Z. ; Dai, B. Z. ; Ding, L. K. ; Feng, Y. X. ; Feng, Z. Y. ; Hibino, K. ; Hotta, N. ; Huang, Q. ; Huo, A. X. ; Jia, H. Y. ; Jiang, G. Z. ; Jiao, S. Q. ; Kajino, F. ; Kasahara, K. ; Labaciren ; Liu, S. M. ; Mei, D. M. ; Meng, L. ; Meng, X. R. ; Mimaciren ; Mizutanin, K. ; Mu, J. ; Nanjo, H. ; Nlshizawa, M. ; Ohnishi, M. ; Ohta, I. ; Ouchi, T. ; Ren, J. R. ; Saito, T. U. ; Sakata, M. ; Shi, Z. Z. ; Shibata, M. ; Shiomi, A. ; Shirai, T. ; Sugimoto, H. ; Sun, X. X. ; Taira, K. ; Tan, Y. H. ; Tateyama, N. ; Torii, Shoji ; Wang, H. ; Wen, C. Z. ; Yamamoto, Y. ; Yu, G. C. ; Yuan, P. ; Yuda, T. ; Zhang, C. S. ; Zhang, H. M. ; Zhang, L. ; Zhasang ; Zhaxiciren ; Zhou, W. D. / The cosmic-ray energy spectrum between 1014.5 and 1016.3 eV covering the "knee" region. In: Astrophysical Journal. 1996 ; Vol. 461, No. 1 PART I. pp. 408-414.
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title = "The cosmic-ray energy spectrum between 1014.5 and 1016.3 eV covering the {"}knee{"} region",
abstract = "The Tibet array is the first air shower detector to search for 10 TeV gamma-ray point sources. This array also has a high sensitivity to air showers initiated by cosmic rays around the {"}knee{"} of the all-particle spectrum at 1015-1016 eV, with quite small ambiguity for the energy estimation, since the development of air showers in this high energy region is close to maximum at Yangbajing altitude (4300 m above sea level). Using the data set taken with the Tibet array in the period from 1990 October through 1993 July, we obtained the differential energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays between 3 × 1014 and 2 × 1016 eV covering the knee region. The overall spectrum obtained does not resemble a single power law and shows a gradual steepening of the slope at energies around 1015.25 eV. The spectrum is expressed as J(E0) = 1.5 × 10-20(E0/1014.75 eV)-2.60±0.04(m-2 s-1 sr-1 eV-1) at E0 < 1014.75 eV and J(E0) = 1.2 × 10-23(E0/1015.85 eV)-3.00±0.05(m-2 s-1 sr-1 eV-1) at E0 > 1015.85 eV, where this changes gradually between 1014.75 and 1015.85 eV and takes the value J(E0) = 6.7 × 10-22 (m-2 s-1 sr-1 eV-1) at E0 = 1015.25 eV.",
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author = "M. Amenomori and Z. Cao and Dai, {B. Z.} and Ding, {L. K.} and Feng, {Y. X.} and Feng, {Z. Y.} and K. Hibino and N. Hotta and Q. Huang and Huo, {A. X.} and Jia, {H. Y.} and Jiang, {G. Z.} and Jiao, {S. Q.} and F. Kajino and K. Kasahara and Labaciren and Liu, {S. M.} and Mei, {D. M.} and L. Meng and Meng, {X. R.} and Mimaciren and K. Mizutanin and J. Mu and H. Nanjo and M. Nlshizawa and M. Ohnishi and I. Ohta and T. Ouchi and Ren, {J. R.} and Saito, {T. U.} and M. Sakata and Shi, {Z. Z.} and M. Shibata and A. Shiomi and T. Shirai and H. Sugimoto and Sun, {X. X.} and K. Taira and Tan, {Y. H.} and N. Tateyama and Shoji Torii and H. Wang and Wen, {C. Z.} and Y. Yamamoto and Yu, {G. C.} and P. Yuan and T. Yuda and Zhang, {C. S.} and Zhang, {H. M.} and L. Zhang and Zhasang and Zhaxiciren and Zhou, {W. D.}",
year = "1996",
language = "English",
volume = "461",
pages = "408--414",
journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
issn = "0004-637X",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - The cosmic-ray energy spectrum between 1014.5 and 1016.3 eV covering the "knee" region

AU - Amenomori, M.

AU - Cao, Z.

AU - Dai, B. Z.

AU - Ding, L. K.

AU - Feng, Y. X.

AU - Feng, Z. Y.

AU - Hibino, K.

AU - Hotta, N.

AU - Huang, Q.

AU - Huo, A. X.

AU - Jia, H. Y.

AU - Jiang, G. Z.

AU - Jiao, S. Q.

AU - Kajino, F.

AU - Kasahara, K.

AU - Labaciren,

AU - Liu, S. M.

AU - Mei, D. M.

AU - Meng, L.

AU - Meng, X. R.

AU - Mimaciren,

AU - Mizutanin, K.

AU - Mu, J.

AU - Nanjo, H.

AU - Nlshizawa, M.

AU - Ohnishi, M.

AU - Ohta, I.

AU - Ouchi, T.

AU - Ren, J. R.

AU - Saito, T. U.

AU - Sakata, M.

AU - Shi, Z. Z.

AU - Shibata, M.

AU - Shiomi, A.

AU - Shirai, T.

AU - Sugimoto, H.

AU - Sun, X. X.

AU - Taira, K.

AU - Tan, Y. H.

AU - Tateyama, N.

AU - Torii, Shoji

AU - Wang, H.

AU - Wen, C. Z.

AU - Yamamoto, Y.

AU - Yu, G. C.

AU - Yuan, P.

AU - Yuda, T.

AU - Zhang, C. S.

AU - Zhang, H. M.

AU - Zhang, L.

AU - Zhasang,

AU - Zhaxiciren,

AU - Zhou, W. D.

PY - 1996

Y1 - 1996

N2 - The Tibet array is the first air shower detector to search for 10 TeV gamma-ray point sources. This array also has a high sensitivity to air showers initiated by cosmic rays around the "knee" of the all-particle spectrum at 1015-1016 eV, with quite small ambiguity for the energy estimation, since the development of air showers in this high energy region is close to maximum at Yangbajing altitude (4300 m above sea level). Using the data set taken with the Tibet array in the period from 1990 October through 1993 July, we obtained the differential energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays between 3 × 1014 and 2 × 1016 eV covering the knee region. The overall spectrum obtained does not resemble a single power law and shows a gradual steepening of the slope at energies around 1015.25 eV. The spectrum is expressed as J(E0) = 1.5 × 10-20(E0/1014.75 eV)-2.60±0.04(m-2 s-1 sr-1 eV-1) at E0 < 1014.75 eV and J(E0) = 1.2 × 10-23(E0/1015.85 eV)-3.00±0.05(m-2 s-1 sr-1 eV-1) at E0 > 1015.85 eV, where this changes gradually between 1014.75 and 1015.85 eV and takes the value J(E0) = 6.7 × 10-22 (m-2 s-1 sr-1 eV-1) at E0 = 1015.25 eV.

AB - The Tibet array is the first air shower detector to search for 10 TeV gamma-ray point sources. This array also has a high sensitivity to air showers initiated by cosmic rays around the "knee" of the all-particle spectrum at 1015-1016 eV, with quite small ambiguity for the energy estimation, since the development of air showers in this high energy region is close to maximum at Yangbajing altitude (4300 m above sea level). Using the data set taken with the Tibet array in the period from 1990 October through 1993 July, we obtained the differential energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays between 3 × 1014 and 2 × 1016 eV covering the knee region. The overall spectrum obtained does not resemble a single power law and shows a gradual steepening of the slope at energies around 1015.25 eV. The spectrum is expressed as J(E0) = 1.5 × 10-20(E0/1014.75 eV)-2.60±0.04(m-2 s-1 sr-1 eV-1) at E0 < 1014.75 eV and J(E0) = 1.2 × 10-23(E0/1015.85 eV)-3.00±0.05(m-2 s-1 sr-1 eV-1) at E0 > 1015.85 eV, where this changes gradually between 1014.75 and 1015.85 eV and takes the value J(E0) = 6.7 × 10-22 (m-2 s-1 sr-1 eV-1) at E0 = 1015.25 eV.

KW - Cosmic rays

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=24444469508&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=24444469508&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:24444469508

VL - 461

SP - 408

EP - 414

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 1 PART I

ER -