The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum between 2 PeV and 2 EeV Observed with the TALE Detector in Monocular Mode

R. U. Abbasi, M. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, R. Azuma, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, D. R. Bergman, S. A. Blake, R. Cady, B. G. Cheon, J. Chiba, M. Chikawa, A. Di Matteo, T. Fujii, K. Fujita, M. Fukushima, G. Furlich, T. Goto, W. Hanlon & 121 others M. Hayashi, Y. Hayashi, N. Hayashida, K. Hibino, K. Honda, D. Ikeda, N. Inoue, T. Ishii, R. Ishimori, H. Ito, D. Ivanov, H. M. Jeong, S. M. Jeong, C. C.H. Jui, K. Kadota, F. Kakimoto, O. Kalashev, K. Kasahara, H. Kawai, S. Kawakami, S. Kawana, K. Kawata, E. Kido, H. B. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. Kishigami, S. Kitamura, Y. Kitamura, V. Kuzmin, M. Kuznetsov, Y. J. Kwon, K. H. Lee, B. Lubsandorzhiev, J. P. Lundquist, K. Machida, K. Martens, T. Matsuyama, J. N. Matthews, R. Mayta, M. Minamino, K. Mukai, I. Myers, K. Nagasawa, S. Nagataki, R. Nakamura, T. Nakamura, T. Nonaka, A. Nozato, H. Oda, S. Ogio, J. Ogura, M. Ohnishi, H. Ohoka, T. Okuda, Y. Omura, M. Ono, R. Onogi, A. Oshima, Shunsuke Ozawa, I. H. Park, M. S. Pshirkov, D. C. Rodriguez, G. Rubtsov, D. Ryu, H. Sagawa, R. Sahara, K. Saito, Y. Saito, N. Sakaki, N. Sakurai, L. M. Scott, T. Seki, K. Sekino, P. D. Shah, F. Shibata, T. Shibata, H. Shimodaira, B. K. Shin, H. S. Shin, J. D. Smith, P. Sokolsky, B. T. Stokes, S. R. Stratton, T. A. Stroman, T. Suzawa, Y. Takagi, Y. Takahashi, M. Takamura, M. Takeda, R. Takeishi, A. Taketa, M. Takita, Y. Tameda, H. Tanaka, K. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, S. B. Thomas, G. B. Thomson, P. Tinyakov, I. Tkachev, H. Tokuno, T. Tomida, S. Troitsky, Y. Tsunesada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Uchihori, S. Udo, F. Urban, T. Wong, M. Yamamoto, R. Yamane, H. Yamaoka, K. Yamazaki, J. Yang, K. Yashiro, Y. Yoneda, S. Yoshida, H. Yoshii, Y. Zhezher, Z. Zundel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report on a measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum by the Telescope Array Low-Energy Extension (TALE) air fluorescence detector (FD). The TALE air FD is also sensitive to the Cherenkov light produced by shower particles. Low-energy cosmic rays, in the PeV energy range, are detectable by TALE as Cherenkov events. Using these events, we measure the energy spectrum from a low energy of ∼2 PeV to an energy greater than 100 PeV. Above 100 PeV, TALE can detect cosmic rays using air fluorescence. This allows for the extension of the measurement to energies greater than a few EeV. In this paper, we describe the detector, explain the technique, and present results from a measurement of the spectrum using ∼1000 hr of observation. The observed spectrum shows a clear steepening near 1017.1 eV, along with an ankle-like structure at 1016.2 eV. These features present important constraints on the origin of galactic cosmic rays and on propagation models. The feature at 1017.1 eV may also mark the end of the galactic cosmic ray flux and the start of the transition to extragalactic sources.

Original languageEnglish
Article number74
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume865
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Sep 20

Fingerprint

cosmic ray
cosmic rays
energy spectra
telescopes
detectors
energy
fluorescence
air
detector
showers
propagation

Keywords

  • astroparticle physics
  • cosmic rays

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Abbasi, R. U., Abe, M., Abu-Zayyad, T., Allen, M., Azuma, R., Barcikowski, E., ... Zundel, Z. (2018). The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum between 2 PeV and 2 EeV Observed with the TALE Detector in Monocular Mode. Astrophysical Journal, 865(1), [74]. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aada05

The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum between 2 PeV and 2 EeV Observed with the TALE Detector in Monocular Mode. / Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Di Matteo, A.; Fujii, T.; Fujita, K.; Fukushima, M.; Furlich, G.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jeong, H. M.; Jeong, S. M.; Jui, C. C.H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kishigami, S.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kuznetsov, M.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lee, K. H.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Mayta, R.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, R.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Oda, H.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Okuda, T.; Omura, Y.; Ono, M.; Onogi, R.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sahara, R.; Saito, K.; Saito, Y.; Sakaki, N.; Sakurai, N.; Scott, L. M.; Seki, T.; Sekino, K.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takagi, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Wong, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zhezher, Y.; Zundel, Z.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 865, No. 1, 74, 20.09.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abbasi, RU, Abe, M, Abu-Zayyad, T, Allen, M, Azuma, R, Barcikowski, E, Belz, JW, Bergman, DR, Blake, SA, Cady, R, Cheon, BG, Chiba, J, Chikawa, M, Di Matteo, A, Fujii, T, Fujita, K, Fukushima, M, Furlich, G, Goto, T, Hanlon, W, Hayashi, M, Hayashi, Y, Hayashida, N, Hibino, K, Honda, K, Ikeda, D, Inoue, N, Ishii, T, Ishimori, R, Ito, H, Ivanov, D, Jeong, HM, Jeong, SM, Jui, CCH, Kadota, K, Kakimoto, F, Kalashev, O, Kasahara, K, Kawai, H, Kawakami, S, Kawana, S, Kawata, K, Kido, E, Kim, HB, Kim, JH, Kim, JH, Kishigami, S, Kitamura, S, Kitamura, Y, Kuzmin, V, Kuznetsov, M, Kwon, YJ, Lee, KH, Lubsandorzhiev, B, Lundquist, JP, Machida, K, Martens, K, Matsuyama, T, Matthews, JN, Mayta, R, Minamino, M, Mukai, K, Myers, I, Nagasawa, K, Nagataki, S, Nakamura, R, Nakamura, T, Nonaka, T, Nozato, A, Oda, H, Ogio, S, Ogura, J, Ohnishi, M, Ohoka, H, Okuda, T, Omura, Y, Ono, M, Onogi, R, Oshima, A, Ozawa, S, Park, IH, Pshirkov, MS, Rodriguez, DC, Rubtsov, G, Ryu, D, Sagawa, H, Sahara, R, Saito, K, Saito, Y, Sakaki, N, Sakurai, N, Scott, LM, Seki, T, Sekino, K, Shah, PD, Shibata, F, Shibata, T, Shimodaira, H, Shin, BK, Shin, HS, Smith, JD, Sokolsky, P, Stokes, BT, Stratton, SR, Stroman, TA, Suzawa, T, Takagi, Y, Takahashi, Y, Takamura, M, Takeda, M, Takeishi, R, Taketa, A, Takita, M, Tameda, Y, Tanaka, H, Tanaka, K, Tanaka, M, Thomas, SB, Thomson, GB, Tinyakov, P, Tkachev, I, Tokuno, H, Tomida, T, Troitsky, S, Tsunesada, Y, Tsutsumi, K, Uchihori, Y, Udo, S, Urban, F, Wong, T, Yamamoto, M, Yamane, R, Yamaoka, H, Yamazaki, K, Yang, J, Yashiro, K, Yoneda, Y, Yoshida, S, Yoshii, H, Zhezher, Y & Zundel, Z 2018, 'The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum between 2 PeV and 2 EeV Observed with the TALE Detector in Monocular Mode', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 865, no. 1, 74. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aada05
Abbasi, R. U. ; Abe, M. ; Abu-Zayyad, T. ; Allen, M. ; Azuma, R. ; Barcikowski, E. ; Belz, J. W. ; Bergman, D. R. ; Blake, S. A. ; Cady, R. ; Cheon, B. G. ; Chiba, J. ; Chikawa, M. ; Di Matteo, A. ; Fujii, T. ; Fujita, K. ; Fukushima, M. ; Furlich, G. ; Goto, T. ; Hanlon, W. ; Hayashi, M. ; Hayashi, Y. ; Hayashida, N. ; Hibino, K. ; Honda, K. ; Ikeda, D. ; Inoue, N. ; Ishii, T. ; Ishimori, R. ; Ito, H. ; Ivanov, D. ; Jeong, H. M. ; Jeong, S. M. ; Jui, C. C.H. ; Kadota, K. ; Kakimoto, F. ; Kalashev, O. ; Kasahara, K. ; Kawai, H. ; Kawakami, S. ; Kawana, S. ; Kawata, K. ; Kido, E. ; Kim, H. B. ; Kim, J. H. ; Kim, J. H. ; Kishigami, S. ; Kitamura, S. ; Kitamura, Y. ; Kuzmin, V. ; Kuznetsov, M. ; Kwon, Y. J. ; Lee, K. H. ; Lubsandorzhiev, B. ; Lundquist, J. P. ; Machida, K. ; Martens, K. ; Matsuyama, T. ; Matthews, J. N. ; Mayta, R. ; Minamino, M. ; Mukai, K. ; Myers, I. ; Nagasawa, K. ; Nagataki, S. ; Nakamura, R. ; Nakamura, T. ; Nonaka, T. ; Nozato, A. ; Oda, H. ; Ogio, S. ; Ogura, J. ; Ohnishi, M. ; Ohoka, H. ; Okuda, T. ; Omura, Y. ; Ono, M. ; Onogi, R. ; Oshima, A. ; Ozawa, Shunsuke ; Park, I. H. ; Pshirkov, M. S. ; Rodriguez, D. C. ; Rubtsov, G. ; Ryu, D. ; Sagawa, H. ; Sahara, R. ; Saito, K. ; Saito, Y. ; Sakaki, N. ; Sakurai, N. ; Scott, L. M. ; Seki, T. ; Sekino, K. ; Shah, P. D. ; Shibata, F. ; Shibata, T. ; Shimodaira, H. ; Shin, B. K. ; Shin, H. S. ; Smith, J. D. ; Sokolsky, P. ; Stokes, B. T. ; Stratton, S. R. ; Stroman, T. A. ; Suzawa, T. ; Takagi, Y. ; Takahashi, Y. ; Takamura, M. ; Takeda, M. ; Takeishi, R. ; Taketa, A. ; Takita, M. ; Tameda, Y. ; Tanaka, H. ; Tanaka, K. ; Tanaka, M. ; Thomas, S. B. ; Thomson, G. B. ; Tinyakov, P. ; Tkachev, I. ; Tokuno, H. ; Tomida, T. ; Troitsky, S. ; Tsunesada, Y. ; Tsutsumi, K. ; Uchihori, Y. ; Udo, S. ; Urban, F. ; Wong, T. ; Yamamoto, M. ; Yamane, R. ; Yamaoka, H. ; Yamazaki, K. ; Yang, J. ; Yashiro, K. ; Yoneda, Y. ; Yoshida, S. ; Yoshii, H. ; Zhezher, Y. ; Zundel, Z. / The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum between 2 PeV and 2 EeV Observed with the TALE Detector in Monocular Mode. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2018 ; Vol. 865, No. 1.
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title = "The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum between 2 PeV and 2 EeV Observed with the TALE Detector in Monocular Mode",
abstract = "We report on a measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum by the Telescope Array Low-Energy Extension (TALE) air fluorescence detector (FD). The TALE air FD is also sensitive to the Cherenkov light produced by shower particles. Low-energy cosmic rays, in the PeV energy range, are detectable by TALE as Cherenkov events. Using these events, we measure the energy spectrum from a low energy of ∼2 PeV to an energy greater than 100 PeV. Above 100 PeV, TALE can detect cosmic rays using air fluorescence. This allows for the extension of the measurement to energies greater than a few EeV. In this paper, we describe the detector, explain the technique, and present results from a measurement of the spectrum using ∼1000 hr of observation. The observed spectrum shows a clear steepening near 1017.1 eV, along with an ankle-like structure at 1016.2 eV. These features present important constraints on the origin of galactic cosmic rays and on propagation models. The feature at 1017.1 eV may also mark the end of the galactic cosmic ray flux and the start of the transition to extragalactic sources.",
keywords = "astroparticle physics, cosmic rays",
author = "Abbasi, {R. U.} and M. Abe and T. Abu-Zayyad and M. Allen and R. Azuma and E. Barcikowski and Belz, {J. W.} and Bergman, {D. R.} and Blake, {S. A.} and R. Cady and Cheon, {B. G.} and J. Chiba and M. Chikawa and {Di Matteo}, A. and T. Fujii and K. Fujita and M. Fukushima and G. Furlich and T. Goto and W. Hanlon and M. Hayashi and Y. Hayashi and N. Hayashida and K. Hibino and K. Honda and D. Ikeda and N. Inoue and T. Ishii and R. Ishimori and H. Ito and D. Ivanov and Jeong, {H. M.} and Jeong, {S. M.} and Jui, {C. C.H.} and K. Kadota and F. Kakimoto and O. Kalashev and K. Kasahara and H. Kawai and S. Kawakami and S. Kawana and K. Kawata and E. Kido and Kim, {H. B.} and Kim, {J. H.} and Kim, {J. H.} and S. Kishigami and S. Kitamura and Y. Kitamura and V. Kuzmin and M. Kuznetsov and Kwon, {Y. J.} and Lee, {K. H.} and B. Lubsandorzhiev and Lundquist, {J. P.} and K. Machida and K. Martens and T. Matsuyama and Matthews, {J. N.} and R. Mayta and M. Minamino and K. Mukai and I. Myers and K. Nagasawa and S. Nagataki and R. Nakamura and T. Nakamura and T. Nonaka and A. Nozato and H. Oda and S. Ogio and J. Ogura and M. Ohnishi and H. Ohoka and T. Okuda and Y. Omura and M. Ono and R. Onogi and A. Oshima and Shunsuke Ozawa and Park, {I. H.} and Pshirkov, {M. S.} and Rodriguez, {D. C.} and G. Rubtsov and D. Ryu and H. Sagawa and R. Sahara and K. Saito and Y. Saito and N. Sakaki and N. Sakurai and Scott, {L. M.} and T. Seki and K. Sekino and Shah, {P. D.} and F. Shibata and T. Shibata and H. Shimodaira and Shin, {B. K.} and Shin, {H. S.} and Smith, {J. D.} and P. Sokolsky and Stokes, {B. T.} and Stratton, {S. R.} and Stroman, {T. A.} and T. Suzawa and Y. Takagi and Y. Takahashi and M. Takamura and M. Takeda and R. Takeishi and A. Taketa and M. Takita and Y. Tameda and H. Tanaka and K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka and Thomas, {S. B.} and Thomson, {G. B.} and P. Tinyakov and I. Tkachev and H. Tokuno and T. Tomida and S. Troitsky and Y. Tsunesada and K. Tsutsumi and Y. Uchihori and S. Udo and F. Urban and T. Wong and M. Yamamoto and R. Yamane and H. Yamaoka and K. Yamazaki and J. Yang and K. Yashiro and Y. Yoneda and S. Yoshida and H. Yoshii and Y. Zhezher and Z. Zundel",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum between 2 PeV and 2 EeV Observed with the TALE Detector in Monocular Mode

AU - Abbasi, R. U.

AU - Abe, M.

AU - Abu-Zayyad, T.

AU - Allen, M.

AU - Azuma, R.

AU - Barcikowski, E.

AU - Belz, J. W.

AU - Bergman, D. R.

AU - Blake, S. A.

AU - Cady, R.

AU - Cheon, B. G.

AU - Chiba, J.

AU - Chikawa, M.

AU - Di Matteo, A.

AU - Fujii, T.

AU - Fujita, K.

AU - Fukushima, M.

AU - Furlich, G.

AU - Goto, T.

AU - Hanlon, W.

AU - Hayashi, M.

AU - Hayashi, Y.

AU - Hayashida, N.

AU - Hibino, K.

AU - Honda, K.

AU - Ikeda, D.

AU - Inoue, N.

AU - Ishii, T.

AU - Ishimori, R.

AU - Ito, H.

AU - Ivanov, D.

AU - Jeong, H. M.

AU - Jeong, S. M.

AU - Jui, C. C.H.

AU - Kadota, K.

AU - Kakimoto, F.

AU - Kalashev, O.

AU - Kasahara, K.

AU - Kawai, H.

AU - Kawakami, S.

AU - Kawana, S.

AU - Kawata, K.

AU - Kido, E.

AU - Kim, H. B.

AU - Kim, J. H.

AU - Kim, J. H.

AU - Kishigami, S.

AU - Kitamura, S.

AU - Kitamura, Y.

AU - Kuzmin, V.

AU - Kuznetsov, M.

AU - Kwon, Y. J.

AU - Lee, K. H.

AU - Lubsandorzhiev, B.

AU - Lundquist, J. P.

AU - Machida, K.

AU - Martens, K.

AU - Matsuyama, T.

AU - Matthews, J. N.

AU - Mayta, R.

AU - Minamino, M.

AU - Mukai, K.

AU - Myers, I.

AU - Nagasawa, K.

AU - Nagataki, S.

AU - Nakamura, R.

AU - Nakamura, T.

AU - Nonaka, T.

AU - Nozato, A.

AU - Oda, H.

AU - Ogio, S.

AU - Ogura, J.

AU - Ohnishi, M.

AU - Ohoka, H.

AU - Okuda, T.

AU - Omura, Y.

AU - Ono, M.

AU - Onogi, R.

AU - Oshima, A.

AU - Ozawa, Shunsuke

AU - Park, I. H.

AU - Pshirkov, M. S.

AU - Rodriguez, D. C.

AU - Rubtsov, G.

AU - Ryu, D.

AU - Sagawa, H.

AU - Sahara, R.

AU - Saito, K.

AU - Saito, Y.

AU - Sakaki, N.

AU - Sakurai, N.

AU - Scott, L. M.

AU - Seki, T.

AU - Sekino, K.

AU - Shah, P. D.

AU - Shibata, F.

AU - Shibata, T.

AU - Shimodaira, H.

AU - Shin, B. K.

AU - Shin, H. S.

AU - Smith, J. D.

AU - Sokolsky, P.

AU - Stokes, B. T.

AU - Stratton, S. R.

AU - Stroman, T. A.

AU - Suzawa, T.

AU - Takagi, Y.

AU - Takahashi, Y.

AU - Takamura, M.

AU - Takeda, M.

AU - Takeishi, R.

AU - Taketa, A.

AU - Takita, M.

AU - Tameda, Y.

AU - Tanaka, H.

AU - Tanaka, K.

AU - Tanaka, M.

AU - Thomas, S. B.

AU - Thomson, G. B.

AU - Tinyakov, P.

AU - Tkachev, I.

AU - Tokuno, H.

AU - Tomida, T.

AU - Troitsky, S.

AU - Tsunesada, Y.

AU - Tsutsumi, K.

AU - Uchihori, Y.

AU - Udo, S.

AU - Urban, F.

AU - Wong, T.

AU - Yamamoto, M.

AU - Yamane, R.

AU - Yamaoka, H.

AU - Yamazaki, K.

AU - Yang, J.

AU - Yashiro, K.

AU - Yoneda, Y.

AU - Yoshida, S.

AU - Yoshii, H.

AU - Zhezher, Y.

AU - Zundel, Z.

PY - 2018/9/20

Y1 - 2018/9/20

N2 - We report on a measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum by the Telescope Array Low-Energy Extension (TALE) air fluorescence detector (FD). The TALE air FD is also sensitive to the Cherenkov light produced by shower particles. Low-energy cosmic rays, in the PeV energy range, are detectable by TALE as Cherenkov events. Using these events, we measure the energy spectrum from a low energy of ∼2 PeV to an energy greater than 100 PeV. Above 100 PeV, TALE can detect cosmic rays using air fluorescence. This allows for the extension of the measurement to energies greater than a few EeV. In this paper, we describe the detector, explain the technique, and present results from a measurement of the spectrum using ∼1000 hr of observation. The observed spectrum shows a clear steepening near 1017.1 eV, along with an ankle-like structure at 1016.2 eV. These features present important constraints on the origin of galactic cosmic rays and on propagation models. The feature at 1017.1 eV may also mark the end of the galactic cosmic ray flux and the start of the transition to extragalactic sources.

AB - We report on a measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum by the Telescope Array Low-Energy Extension (TALE) air fluorescence detector (FD). The TALE air FD is also sensitive to the Cherenkov light produced by shower particles. Low-energy cosmic rays, in the PeV energy range, are detectable by TALE as Cherenkov events. Using these events, we measure the energy spectrum from a low energy of ∼2 PeV to an energy greater than 100 PeV. Above 100 PeV, TALE can detect cosmic rays using air fluorescence. This allows for the extension of the measurement to energies greater than a few EeV. In this paper, we describe the detector, explain the technique, and present results from a measurement of the spectrum using ∼1000 hr of observation. The observed spectrum shows a clear steepening near 1017.1 eV, along with an ankle-like structure at 1016.2 eV. These features present important constraints on the origin of galactic cosmic rays and on propagation models. The feature at 1017.1 eV may also mark the end of the galactic cosmic ray flux and the start of the transition to extragalactic sources.

KW - astroparticle physics

KW - cosmic rays

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85053920773&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85053920773&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3847/1538-4357/aada05

DO - 10.3847/1538-4357/aada05

M3 - Article

VL - 865

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 1

M1 - 74

ER -