The cosmic-ray energy spectrum observed with the surface detector of the telescope array experiment

T. Abu-Zayyad, R. Aida, M. Allen, R. Anderson, R. Azuma, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, D. R. Bergman, S. A. Blake, R. Cady, B. G. Cheon, J. Chiba, M. Chikawa, E. J. Cho, W. R. Cho, H. Fujii, T. Fujii, T. Fukuda, M. Fukushima, W. HanlonK. Hayashi, Y. Hayashi, N. Hayashida, K. Hibino, K. Hiyama, K. Honda, T. Iguchi, D. Ikeda, K. Ikuta, N. Inoue, T. Ishii, R. Ishimori, D. Ivanov, S. Iwamoto, C. C H Jui, K. Kadota, F. Kakimoto, O. Kalashev, T. Kanbe, K. Kasahara, H. Kawai, S. Kawakami, S. Kawana, E. Kido, H. B. Kim, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, K. Kitamoto, S. Kitamura, Y. Kitamura, K. Kobayashi, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Kondo, K. Kuramoto, V. Kuzmin, Y. J. Kwon, J. Lan, S. I. Lim, S. Machida, K. Martens, T. Matsuda, T. Matsuura, T. Matsuyama, J. N. Matthews, M. Minamino, K. Miyata, Y. Murano, I. Myers, K. Nagasawa, S. Nagataki, T. Nakamura, S. W. Nam, T. Nonaka, S. Ogio, M. Ohnishi, H. Ohoka, K. Oki, D. Oku, T. Okuda, A. Oshima, Shunsuke Ozawa, I. H. Park, M. S. Pshirkov, D. C. Rodriguez, S. Y. Roh, G. Rubtsov, D. Ryu, H. Sagawa, N. Sakurai, A. L. Sampson, L. M. Scott, P. D. Shah, F. Shibata, T. Shibata, H. Shimodaira, B. K. Shin, J. I. Shin, T. Shirahama, J. D. Smith, P. Sokolsky, B. T. Stokes, S. R. Stratton, T. Stroman, S. Suzuki, Y. Takahashi, M. Takeda, A. Taketa, M. Takita, Y. Tameda, H. Tanaka, K. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, S. B. Thomas, G. B. Thomson, P. Tinyakov, I. Tkachev, H. Tokuno, T. Tomida, S. Troitsky, Y. Tsunesada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Tsuyuguchi, Y. Uchihori, S. Udo, H. Ukai, G. Vasiloff, Y. Wada, T. Wong, M. Wood, Y. Yamakawa, R. Yamane, H. Yamaoka, K. Yamazaki, J. Yang, Y. Yoneda, S. Yoshida, H. Yoshii, X. Zhou, R. Zollinger, Z. Zundel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

166 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Telescope Array (TA) collaboration has measured the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with primary energies above 1.6 × 1018 eV. This measurement is based upon four years of observation by the surface detector component of TA. The spectrum shows a dip at an energy of 4.6 × 1018 eV and a steepening at 5.4 × 1019 eV which is consistent with the expectation from the GZK cutoff. We present the results of a technique, new to the analysis of UHECR surface detector data, that involves generating a complete simulation of UHECRs striking the TA surface detector. The procedure starts with shower simulations using the CORSIKA Monte Carlo program where we have solved the problems caused by use of the "thinning" approximation. This simulation method allows us to make an accurate calculation of the acceptance of the detector for the energies concerned.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberL1
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Volume768
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 May 1

Fingerprint

cosmic ray
cosmic rays
energy spectra
telescopes
detectors
energy
experiment
simulation
showers
acceptability
detector
cut-off
thinning
dip
approximation

Keywords

  • astroparticle physics
  • cosmic rays
  • methods: data analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Abu-Zayyad, T., Aida, R., Allen, M., Anderson, R., Azuma, R., Barcikowski, E., ... Zundel, Z. (2013). The cosmic-ray energy spectrum observed with the surface detector of the telescope array experiment. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 768(1), [L1]. https://doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/768/1/L1

The cosmic-ray energy spectrum observed with the surface detector of the telescope array experiment. / Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E. J.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, M.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Hiyama, K.; Honda, K.; Iguchi, T.; Ikeda, D.; Ikuta, K.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ivanov, D.; Iwamoto, S.; Jui, C. C H; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kanbe, T.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamoto, K.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Machida, S.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuura, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Miyata, K.; Murano, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nam, S. W.; Nonaka, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Oku, D.; Okuda, T.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Roh, S. Y.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, J. I.; Shirahama, T.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeda, M.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Tsuyuguchi, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Ukai, H.; Vasiloff, G.; Wada, Y.; Wong, T.; Wood, M.; Yamakawa, Y.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zhou, X.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, Vol. 768, No. 1, L1, 01.05.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abu-Zayyad, T, Aida, R, Allen, M, Anderson, R, Azuma, R, Barcikowski, E, Belz, JW, Bergman, DR, Blake, SA, Cady, R, Cheon, BG, Chiba, J, Chikawa, M, Cho, EJ, Cho, WR, Fujii, H, Fujii, T, Fukuda, T, Fukushima, M, Hanlon, W, Hayashi, K, Hayashi, Y, Hayashida, N, Hibino, K, Hiyama, K, Honda, K, Iguchi, T, Ikeda, D, Ikuta, K, Inoue, N, Ishii, T, Ishimori, R, Ivanov, D, Iwamoto, S, Jui, CCH, Kadota, K, Kakimoto, F, Kalashev, O, Kanbe, T, Kasahara, K, Kawai, H, Kawakami, S, Kawana, S, Kido, E, Kim, HB, Kim, HK, Kim, JH, Kim, JH, Kitamoto, K, Kitamura, S, Kitamura, Y, Kobayashi, K, Kobayashi, Y, Kondo, Y, Kuramoto, K, Kuzmin, V, Kwon, YJ, Lan, J, Lim, SI, Machida, S, Martens, K, Matsuda, T, Matsuura, T, Matsuyama, T, Matthews, JN, Minamino, M, Miyata, K, Murano, Y, Myers, I, Nagasawa, K, Nagataki, S, Nakamura, T, Nam, SW, Nonaka, T, Ogio, S, Ohnishi, M, Ohoka, H, Oki, K, Oku, D, Okuda, T, Oshima, A, Ozawa, S, Park, IH, Pshirkov, MS, Rodriguez, DC, Roh, SY, Rubtsov, G, Ryu, D, Sagawa, H, Sakurai, N, Sampson, AL, Scott, LM, Shah, PD, Shibata, F, Shibata, T, Shimodaira, H, Shin, BK, Shin, JI, Shirahama, T, Smith, JD, Sokolsky, P, Stokes, BT, Stratton, SR, Stroman, T, Suzuki, S, Takahashi, Y, Takeda, M, Taketa, A, Takita, M, Tameda, Y, Tanaka, H, Tanaka, K, Tanaka, M, Thomas, SB, Thomson, GB, Tinyakov, P, Tkachev, I, Tokuno, H, Tomida, T, Troitsky, S, Tsunesada, Y, Tsutsumi, K, Tsuyuguchi, Y, Uchihori, Y, Udo, S, Ukai, H, Vasiloff, G, Wada, Y, Wong, T, Wood, M, Yamakawa, Y, Yamane, R, Yamaoka, H, Yamazaki, K, Yang, J, Yoneda, Y, Yoshida, S, Yoshii, H, Zhou, X, Zollinger, R & Zundel, Z 2013, 'The cosmic-ray energy spectrum observed with the surface detector of the telescope array experiment', Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 768, no. 1, L1. https://doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/768/1/L1
Abu-Zayyad, T. ; Aida, R. ; Allen, M. ; Anderson, R. ; Azuma, R. ; Barcikowski, E. ; Belz, J. W. ; Bergman, D. R. ; Blake, S. A. ; Cady, R. ; Cheon, B. G. ; Chiba, J. ; Chikawa, M. ; Cho, E. J. ; Cho, W. R. ; Fujii, H. ; Fujii, T. ; Fukuda, T. ; Fukushima, M. ; Hanlon, W. ; Hayashi, K. ; Hayashi, Y. ; Hayashida, N. ; Hibino, K. ; Hiyama, K. ; Honda, K. ; Iguchi, T. ; Ikeda, D. ; Ikuta, K. ; Inoue, N. ; Ishii, T. ; Ishimori, R. ; Ivanov, D. ; Iwamoto, S. ; Jui, C. C H ; Kadota, K. ; Kakimoto, F. ; Kalashev, O. ; Kanbe, T. ; Kasahara, K. ; Kawai, H. ; Kawakami, S. ; Kawana, S. ; Kido, E. ; Kim, H. B. ; Kim, H. K. ; Kim, J. H. ; Kim, J. H. ; Kitamoto, K. ; Kitamura, S. ; Kitamura, Y. ; Kobayashi, K. ; Kobayashi, Y. ; Kondo, Y. ; Kuramoto, K. ; Kuzmin, V. ; Kwon, Y. J. ; Lan, J. ; Lim, S. I. ; Machida, S. ; Martens, K. ; Matsuda, T. ; Matsuura, T. ; Matsuyama, T. ; Matthews, J. N. ; Minamino, M. ; Miyata, K. ; Murano, Y. ; Myers, I. ; Nagasawa, K. ; Nagataki, S. ; Nakamura, T. ; Nam, S. W. ; Nonaka, T. ; Ogio, S. ; Ohnishi, M. ; Ohoka, H. ; Oki, K. ; Oku, D. ; Okuda, T. ; Oshima, A. ; Ozawa, Shunsuke ; Park, I. H. ; Pshirkov, M. S. ; Rodriguez, D. C. ; Roh, S. Y. ; Rubtsov, G. ; Ryu, D. ; Sagawa, H. ; Sakurai, N. ; Sampson, A. L. ; Scott, L. M. ; Shah, P. D. ; Shibata, F. ; Shibata, T. ; Shimodaira, H. ; Shin, B. K. ; Shin, J. I. ; Shirahama, T. ; Smith, J. D. ; Sokolsky, P. ; Stokes, B. T. ; Stratton, S. R. ; Stroman, T. ; Suzuki, S. ; Takahashi, Y. ; Takeda, M. ; Taketa, A. ; Takita, M. ; Tameda, Y. ; Tanaka, H. ; Tanaka, K. ; Tanaka, M. ; Thomas, S. B. ; Thomson, G. B. ; Tinyakov, P. ; Tkachev, I. ; Tokuno, H. ; Tomida, T. ; Troitsky, S. ; Tsunesada, Y. ; Tsutsumi, K. ; Tsuyuguchi, Y. ; Uchihori, Y. ; Udo, S. ; Ukai, H. ; Vasiloff, G. ; Wada, Y. ; Wong, T. ; Wood, M. ; Yamakawa, Y. ; Yamane, R. ; Yamaoka, H. ; Yamazaki, K. ; Yang, J. ; Yoneda, Y. ; Yoshida, S. ; Yoshii, H. ; Zhou, X. ; Zollinger, R. ; Zundel, Z. / The cosmic-ray energy spectrum observed with the surface detector of the telescope array experiment. In: Astrophysical Journal Letters. 2013 ; Vol. 768, No. 1.
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abstract = "The Telescope Array (TA) collaboration has measured the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with primary energies above 1.6 × 1018 eV. This measurement is based upon four years of observation by the surface detector component of TA. The spectrum shows a dip at an energy of 4.6 × 1018 eV and a steepening at 5.4 × 1019 eV which is consistent with the expectation from the GZK cutoff. We present the results of a technique, new to the analysis of UHECR surface detector data, that involves generating a complete simulation of UHECRs striking the TA surface detector. The procedure starts with shower simulations using the CORSIKA Monte Carlo program where we have solved the problems caused by use of the {"}thinning{"} approximation. This simulation method allows us to make an accurate calculation of the acceptance of the detector for the energies concerned.",
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T1 - The cosmic-ray energy spectrum observed with the surface detector of the telescope array experiment

AU - Abu-Zayyad, T.

AU - Aida, R.

AU - Allen, M.

AU - Anderson, R.

AU - Azuma, R.

AU - Barcikowski, E.

AU - Belz, J. W.

AU - Bergman, D. R.

AU - Blake, S. A.

AU - Cady, R.

AU - Cheon, B. G.

AU - Chiba, J.

AU - Chikawa, M.

AU - Cho, E. J.

AU - Cho, W. R.

AU - Fujii, H.

AU - Fujii, T.

AU - Fukuda, T.

AU - Fukushima, M.

AU - Hanlon, W.

AU - Hayashi, K.

AU - Hayashi, Y.

AU - Hayashida, N.

AU - Hibino, K.

AU - Hiyama, K.

AU - Honda, K.

AU - Iguchi, T.

AU - Ikeda, D.

AU - Ikuta, K.

AU - Inoue, N.

AU - Ishii, T.

AU - Ishimori, R.

AU - Ivanov, D.

AU - Iwamoto, S.

AU - Jui, C. C H

AU - Kadota, K.

AU - Kakimoto, F.

AU - Kalashev, O.

AU - Kanbe, T.

AU - Kasahara, K.

AU - Kawai, H.

AU - Kawakami, S.

AU - Kawana, S.

AU - Kido, E.

AU - Kim, H. B.

AU - Kim, H. K.

AU - Kim, J. H.

AU - Kim, J. H.

AU - Kitamoto, K.

AU - Kitamura, S.

AU - Kitamura, Y.

AU - Kobayashi, K.

AU - Kobayashi, Y.

AU - Kondo, Y.

AU - Kuramoto, K.

AU - Kuzmin, V.

AU - Kwon, Y. J.

AU - Lan, J.

AU - Lim, S. I.

AU - Machida, S.

AU - Martens, K.

AU - Matsuda, T.

AU - Matsuura, T.

AU - Matsuyama, T.

AU - Matthews, J. N.

AU - Minamino, M.

AU - Miyata, K.

AU - Murano, Y.

AU - Myers, I.

AU - Nagasawa, K.

AU - Nagataki, S.

AU - Nakamura, T.

AU - Nam, S. W.

AU - Nonaka, T.

AU - Ogio, S.

AU - Ohnishi, M.

AU - Ohoka, H.

AU - Oki, K.

AU - Oku, D.

AU - Okuda, T.

AU - Oshima, A.

AU - Ozawa, Shunsuke

AU - Park, I. H.

AU - Pshirkov, M. S.

AU - Rodriguez, D. C.

AU - Roh, S. Y.

AU - Rubtsov, G.

AU - Ryu, D.

AU - Sagawa, H.

AU - Sakurai, N.

AU - Sampson, A. L.

AU - Scott, L. M.

AU - Shah, P. D.

AU - Shibata, F.

AU - Shibata, T.

AU - Shimodaira, H.

AU - Shin, B. K.

AU - Shin, J. I.

AU - Shirahama, T.

AU - Smith, J. D.

AU - Sokolsky, P.

AU - Stokes, B. T.

AU - Stratton, S. R.

AU - Stroman, T.

AU - Suzuki, S.

AU - Takahashi, Y.

AU - Takeda, M.

AU - Taketa, A.

AU - Takita, M.

AU - Tameda, Y.

AU - Tanaka, H.

AU - Tanaka, K.

AU - Tanaka, M.

AU - Thomas, S. B.

AU - Thomson, G. B.

AU - Tinyakov, P.

AU - Tkachev, I.

AU - Tokuno, H.

AU - Tomida, T.

AU - Troitsky, S.

AU - Tsunesada, Y.

AU - Tsutsumi, K.

AU - Tsuyuguchi, Y.

AU - Uchihori, Y.

AU - Udo, S.

AU - Ukai, H.

AU - Vasiloff, G.

AU - Wada, Y.

AU - Wong, T.

AU - Wood, M.

AU - Yamakawa, Y.

AU - Yamane, R.

AU - Yamaoka, H.

AU - Yamazaki, K.

AU - Yang, J.

AU - Yoneda, Y.

AU - Yoshida, S.

AU - Yoshii, H.

AU - Zhou, X.

AU - Zollinger, R.

AU - Zundel, Z.

PY - 2013/5/1

Y1 - 2013/5/1

N2 - The Telescope Array (TA) collaboration has measured the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with primary energies above 1.6 × 1018 eV. This measurement is based upon four years of observation by the surface detector component of TA. The spectrum shows a dip at an energy of 4.6 × 1018 eV and a steepening at 5.4 × 1019 eV which is consistent with the expectation from the GZK cutoff. We present the results of a technique, new to the analysis of UHECR surface detector data, that involves generating a complete simulation of UHECRs striking the TA surface detector. The procedure starts with shower simulations using the CORSIKA Monte Carlo program where we have solved the problems caused by use of the "thinning" approximation. This simulation method allows us to make an accurate calculation of the acceptance of the detector for the energies concerned.

AB - The Telescope Array (TA) collaboration has measured the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with primary energies above 1.6 × 1018 eV. This measurement is based upon four years of observation by the surface detector component of TA. The spectrum shows a dip at an energy of 4.6 × 1018 eV and a steepening at 5.4 × 1019 eV which is consistent with the expectation from the GZK cutoff. We present the results of a technique, new to the analysis of UHECR surface detector data, that involves generating a complete simulation of UHECRs striking the TA surface detector. The procedure starts with shower simulations using the CORSIKA Monte Carlo program where we have solved the problems caused by use of the "thinning" approximation. This simulation method allows us to make an accurate calculation of the acceptance of the detector for the energies concerned.

KW - astroparticle physics

KW - cosmic rays

KW - methods: data analysis

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UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84876530151&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/2041-8205/768/1/L1

DO - 10.1088/2041-8205/768/1/L1

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84876530151

VL - 768

JO - Astrophysical Journal Letters

JF - Astrophysical Journal Letters

SN - 2041-8205

IS - 1

M1 - L1

ER -