The development and performance of UV-enhanced APD-arrays for high resolution PET imaging coupled with pixelized Pr: LuAG crystal

M. Yoshino, Jun Kataoka, T. Nakamori, H. Matsuda, T. Miura, T. Katou, Y. Ishikawa, N. Kawabata, Y. Matsunaga, K. Kamada, Y. Usuki, A. Yoshikawa, T. Yanagida

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    Abstract

    The development of high-resolution, UV-enhanced avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays usable in high-resolution PET imaging is underway. These APD arrays were specifically designed as photosensors capable of direct coupling with pixelized Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 (Pr:LuAG) scintillators. An excellent quantum efficiency (QE) of 55% was achieved at the peak emission of Pr:LuAG (310 nm), namely, a substantial improvement from the QE ≤5% as measured with the conventional Hamamatsu reverse-type APDs (S8664 series). Each APD device has 8×8 (TYP1) and 12×12 (TYP2) pixel structures with active areas of 3×3 mm2 and 2×2 mm2 in each pixel, respectively. A gain uniformity of ±8% and low dark noise of ≤2nA/pixel have been achieved, measured at 25 °C. We also report on the large size single crystal growth of improved Pr:LuAG scintillators and the preliminary performance test of the same. An energy resolution of 4.2% (FWHM) was obtained for 662 keV gamma-rays for 10×10×10 mm3 crystal, measured with a PMT employing a super-bialkali photocathode. We made a test module consisting of a UV-enhanced APD-array (either TYP1 or TYP2) optically coupled with an 8×8 (or 12×12) pixel Pr:LuAG matrix. The linearity between the output signals and incident gamma-ray energy of TYP1 and TYP2 gamma-ray detectors were only 0.27 and 0.33%, as measured at 25 °C for various gamma-ray sources, respectively. Energy resolutions of 7.0±0.2% (FWHM) and 9.0±0.6% (FWHM) were, respectively, obtained for TYP1 and TYP2 detector arrays for 662 keV gamma-rays. The uniformity of the pulse height distributions was also measured at less than 8% for both detectors. Finally, we measured the coincidence timing resolution of these gamma-ray detectors and obtained 4.0±0.1 ns (FWHM) for the 511 keV annihilation quanta from a 22Na source. These results suggest that UV-enhanced APD-arrays coupled with Pr:LuAG scintillators could be a promising device for future application in nuclear medicine.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)57-63
    Number of pages7
    JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
    Volume643
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2011 Jul 1

    Fingerprint

    Avalanche photodiodes
    Gamma rays
    avalanches
    photodiodes
    gamma rays
    Full width at half maximum
    Imaging techniques
    Crystals
    pixels
    high resolution
    scintillation counters
    Pixels
    Phosphors
    crystals
    Detectors
    detectors
    quantum efficiency
    Quantum efficiency
    photosensors
    nuclear medicine

    Keywords

    • Avalanche photodiode
    • Gamma-rays
    • Positron emission tomography

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Instrumentation
    • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

    Cite this

    The development and performance of UV-enhanced APD-arrays for high resolution PET imaging coupled with pixelized Pr : LuAG crystal. / Yoshino, M.; Kataoka, Jun; Nakamori, T.; Matsuda, H.; Miura, T.; Katou, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kawabata, N.; Matsunaga, Y.; Kamada, K.; Usuki, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.; Yanagida, T.

    In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 643, No. 1, 01.07.2011, p. 57-63.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Yoshino, M. ; Kataoka, Jun ; Nakamori, T. ; Matsuda, H. ; Miura, T. ; Katou, T. ; Ishikawa, Y. ; Kawabata, N. ; Matsunaga, Y. ; Kamada, K. ; Usuki, Y. ; Yoshikawa, A. ; Yanagida, T. / The development and performance of UV-enhanced APD-arrays for high resolution PET imaging coupled with pixelized Pr : LuAG crystal. In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 2011 ; Vol. 643, No. 1. pp. 57-63.
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    abstract = "The development of high-resolution, UV-enhanced avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays usable in high-resolution PET imaging is underway. These APD arrays were specifically designed as photosensors capable of direct coupling with pixelized Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 (Pr:LuAG) scintillators. An excellent quantum efficiency (QE) of 55{\%} was achieved at the peak emission of Pr:LuAG (310 nm), namely, a substantial improvement from the QE ≤5{\%} as measured with the conventional Hamamatsu reverse-type APDs (S8664 series). Each APD device has 8×8 (TYP1) and 12×12 (TYP2) pixel structures with active areas of 3×3 mm2 and 2×2 mm2 in each pixel, respectively. A gain uniformity of ±8{\%} and low dark noise of ≤2nA/pixel have been achieved, measured at 25 °C. We also report on the large size single crystal growth of improved Pr:LuAG scintillators and the preliminary performance test of the same. An energy resolution of 4.2{\%} (FWHM) was obtained for 662 keV gamma-rays for 10×10×10 mm3 crystal, measured with a PMT employing a super-bialkali photocathode. We made a test module consisting of a UV-enhanced APD-array (either TYP1 or TYP2) optically coupled with an 8×8 (or 12×12) pixel Pr:LuAG matrix. The linearity between the output signals and incident gamma-ray energy of TYP1 and TYP2 gamma-ray detectors were only 0.27 and 0.33{\%}, as measured at 25 °C for various gamma-ray sources, respectively. Energy resolutions of 7.0±0.2{\%} (FWHM) and 9.0±0.6{\%} (FWHM) were, respectively, obtained for TYP1 and TYP2 detector arrays for 662 keV gamma-rays. The uniformity of the pulse height distributions was also measured at less than 8{\%} for both detectors. Finally, we measured the coincidence timing resolution of these gamma-ray detectors and obtained 4.0±0.1 ns (FWHM) for the 511 keV annihilation quanta from a 22Na source. These results suggest that UV-enhanced APD-arrays coupled with Pr:LuAG scintillators could be a promising device for future application in nuclear medicine.",
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    AU - Matsuda, H.

    AU - Miura, T.

    AU - Katou, T.

    AU - Ishikawa, Y.

    AU - Kawabata, N.

    AU - Matsunaga, Y.

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    AB - The development of high-resolution, UV-enhanced avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays usable in high-resolution PET imaging is underway. These APD arrays were specifically designed as photosensors capable of direct coupling with pixelized Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 (Pr:LuAG) scintillators. An excellent quantum efficiency (QE) of 55% was achieved at the peak emission of Pr:LuAG (310 nm), namely, a substantial improvement from the QE ≤5% as measured with the conventional Hamamatsu reverse-type APDs (S8664 series). Each APD device has 8×8 (TYP1) and 12×12 (TYP2) pixel structures with active areas of 3×3 mm2 and 2×2 mm2 in each pixel, respectively. A gain uniformity of ±8% and low dark noise of ≤2nA/pixel have been achieved, measured at 25 °C. We also report on the large size single crystal growth of improved Pr:LuAG scintillators and the preliminary performance test of the same. An energy resolution of 4.2% (FWHM) was obtained for 662 keV gamma-rays for 10×10×10 mm3 crystal, measured with a PMT employing a super-bialkali photocathode. We made a test module consisting of a UV-enhanced APD-array (either TYP1 or TYP2) optically coupled with an 8×8 (or 12×12) pixel Pr:LuAG matrix. The linearity between the output signals and incident gamma-ray energy of TYP1 and TYP2 gamma-ray detectors were only 0.27 and 0.33%, as measured at 25 °C for various gamma-ray sources, respectively. Energy resolutions of 7.0±0.2% (FWHM) and 9.0±0.6% (FWHM) were, respectively, obtained for TYP1 and TYP2 detector arrays for 662 keV gamma-rays. The uniformity of the pulse height distributions was also measured at less than 8% for both detectors. Finally, we measured the coincidence timing resolution of these gamma-ray detectors and obtained 4.0±0.1 ns (FWHM) for the 511 keV annihilation quanta from a 22Na source. These results suggest that UV-enhanced APD-arrays coupled with Pr:LuAG scintillators could be a promising device for future application in nuclear medicine.

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