The Einstein equations on the 3-brane world

Tetsuya Shiromizu*, Kei Ichi Maeda, Misao Sasaki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1280 Citations (Scopus)


We carefully investigate the gravitational equations of the brane world, in which all the matter forces except gravity are confined on the 3-brane in a 5-dimensional spacetime with Z2 symmetry. We derive the effective gravitational equations on the brane, which reduce to the conventional Einstein equations in the low energy limit. From our general argument we conclude that the first Randall-Sundrum-type theory predicts that the brane with a negative tension is an antigravity world and hence should be excluded from the physical point of view. Their second-type theory where the brane has a positive tension provides the correct signature of gravity. In this latter case, if the bulk spacetime is exactly anti-de Sitter spacetime, generically the matter on the brane is required to be spatially homogeneous because of the Bianchi identities. By allowing deviations from anti-de Sitter spacetime in the bulk, the situation will be relaxed and the Bianchi identities give just the relation between the Weyl tensor and the energy momentum tensor. In the present brane world scenario, the effective Einstein equations cease to be valid during an era when the cosmological constant on the brane is not well defined, such as in the case of the matter dominated by the potential energy of the scalar field.

Original languageEnglish
Article number024012
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalPhysical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2000 Jul 15

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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