We first showed a general theory that reception of information from the outside in a receptor system is accompanied both by an inflow of entropy and by a generation of entropy depending on the reliability of the actual reception mechanism. Then, considering a case for the absorption of light by the visual-pigment system of visual cell, we calculated the time(t)-dependent change in the number N2(t) of excited visual-pigments to obtain the entropy increase. We thus arrived at the following four conclusions: (1) One or two photons can be detected with a reliability of at least 54%; (2) In compensation for this detection, entropy > 1.12 x log2 is generated; (3) An incident photon of frequency v from a light source of temperature T(s) yields an entropy of hv/T(s); and (4) Depending on the characteristics of the visual-pigment system, another entropy being different from (2) is generated in proportion to N2(t).
- Information theory
- Molecular orbital theory
- Second law of thermodynamics
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry