The clock gene, Period1, from human and mouse was sequenced and characterized. Both human PERIOD1 (human PER1) and mouse Period1 (mouse Per1) consisted of 23 exons spanning approximately 16 kb, and their structures showed strong similarity to each other. For example, six highly conserved regions were identified in the 5' upstream sequences. These conserved segments exhibited 77-88% identity and possessed several potential regulatory elements including five E-boxes (the binding site of the CLOCKBMAL1 complex) and four cyclic AMP response elements. Transient transfection assays using a mPer1-luciferase fusion gene revealed that each of the conserved E-boxes additively functions as an enhancer for the transactivation of mPer1 by InCLOCK and mBMAL1. (C) Academic Press.
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