The imprint of the extragalactic background light in the gamma-ray spectra of blazars

M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, P. Schady, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, R. Bellazzini, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, A. W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro & 121 others R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, R. C G Chaves, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, G. Chiaro, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, A. Domínguez, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, W. B. Focke, A. Franckowiak, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, J. E. Grove, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, M. S. Jackson, T. Jogler, Jun Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P. F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, A. Tramacere, E. Nuss, J. Greiner, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, M. Orienti, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J. S. Perkins, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, G. Pivato, T. A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, L. C. Reyes, S. Ritz, A. Rau, C. Romoli, M. Roth, M. Sánchez-Conde, D. A. Sanchez, J. D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E. J. Siskind, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, Łukasz Stawarz, D. J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J. G. Thayer, D. J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, M. Tinivella, D. F. Torres, G. Tosti, E. Troja, T. L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A. P. Waite, B. L. Winer, K. S. Wood, M. Wood

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    163 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The light emitted by stars and accreting compact objects through the history of the universe is encoded in the intensity of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Knowledge of the EBL is important to understand the nature of star formation and galaxy evolution, but direct measurements of the EBL are limited by galactic and other foreground emissions. Here, we report an absorption feature seen in the combined spectra of a sample of gamma-ray blazars out to a redshift of z ∼ 1.6. This feature is caused by attenuation of gamma rays by the EBL at optical to ultraviolet frequencies and allowed us to measure the EBL flux density in this frequency band.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1190-1192
    Number of pages3
    JournalScience
    Volume338
    Issue number6111
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2012 Nov 30

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    Gamma Rays
    Light
    Galaxies
    History

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • General

    Cite this

    Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Schady, P., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., ... Wood, M. (2012). The imprint of the extragalactic background light in the gamma-ray spectra of blazars. Science, 338(6111), 1190-1192. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1227160

    The imprint of the extragalactic background light in the gamma-ray spectra of blazars. / Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Schady, P.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C G; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; De Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Domínguez, A.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Kataoka, Jun; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Tramacere, A.; Nuss, E.; Greiner, J.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Ritz, S.; Rau, A.; Romoli, C.; Roth, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Sanchez, D. A.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Łukasz; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.

    In: Science, Vol. 338, No. 6111, 30.11.2012, p. 1190-1192.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Ackermann, M, Ajello, M, Allafort, A, Schady, P, Baldini, L, Ballet, J, Barbiellini, G, Bastieri, D, Bellazzini, R, Blandford, RD, Bloom, ED, Borgland, AW, Bottacini, E, Bouvier, A, Bregeon, J, Brigida, M, Bruel, P, Buehler, R, Buson, S, Caliandro, GA, Cameron, RA, Caraveo, PA, Cavazzuti, E, Cecchi, C, Charles, E, Chaves, RCG, Chekhtman, A, Cheung, CC, Chiang, J, Chiaro, G, Ciprini, S, Claus, R, Cohen-Tanugi, J, Conrad, J, Cutini, S, D'Ammando, F, De Palma, F, Dermer, CD, Digel, SW, Do Couto E Silva, E, Domínguez, A, Drell, PS, Drlica-Wagner, A, Favuzzi, C, Fegan, SJ, Focke, WB, Franckowiak, A, Fukazawa, Y, Funk, S, Fusco, P, Gargano, F, Gasparrini, D, Gehrels, N, Germani, S, Giglietto, N, Giordano, F, Giroletti, M, Glanzman, T, Godfrey, G, Grenier, IA, Grove, JE, Guiriec, S, Gustafsson, M, Hadasch, D, Hayashida, M, Hays, E, Jackson, MS, Jogler, T, Kataoka, J, Knödlseder, J, Kuss, M, Lande, J, Larsson, S, Latronico, L, Longo, F, Loparco, F, Lovellette, MN, Lubrano, P, Mazziotta, MN, McEnery, JE, Mehault, J, Michelson, PF, Mizuno, T, Monte, C, Monzani, ME, Morselli, A, Moskalenko, IV, Murgia, S, Tramacere, A, Nuss, E, Greiner, J, Ohno, M, Ohsugi, T, Omodei, N, Orienti, M, Orlando, E, Ormes, JF, Paneque, D, Perkins, JS, Pesce-Rollins, M, Piron, F, Pivato, G, Porter, TA, Rainò, S, Rando, R, Razzano, M, Razzaque, S, Reimer, A, Reimer, O, Reyes, LC, Ritz, S, Rau, A, Romoli, C, Roth, M, Sánchez-Conde, M, Sanchez, DA, Scargle, JD, Sgrò, C, Siskind, EJ, Spandre, G, Spinelli, P, Stawarz, Ł, Suson, DJ, Takahashi, H, Tanaka, T, Thayer, JG, Thompson, DJ, Tibaldo, L, Tinivella, M, Torres, DF, Tosti, G, Troja, E, Usher, TL, Vandenbroucke, J, Vasileiou, V, Vianello, G, Vitale, V, Waite, AP, Winer, BL, Wood, KS & Wood, M 2012, 'The imprint of the extragalactic background light in the gamma-ray spectra of blazars', Science, vol. 338, no. 6111, pp. 1190-1192. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1227160
    Ackermann M, Ajello M, Allafort A, Schady P, Baldini L, Ballet J et al. The imprint of the extragalactic background light in the gamma-ray spectra of blazars. Science. 2012 Nov 30;338(6111):1190-1192. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1227160
    Ackermann, M. ; Ajello, M. ; Allafort, A. ; Schady, P. ; Baldini, L. ; Ballet, J. ; Barbiellini, G. ; Bastieri, D. ; Bellazzini, R. ; Blandford, R. D. ; Bloom, E. D. ; Borgland, A. W. ; Bottacini, E. ; Bouvier, A. ; Bregeon, J. ; Brigida, M. ; Bruel, P. ; Buehler, R. ; Buson, S. ; Caliandro, G. A. ; Cameron, R. A. ; Caraveo, P. A. ; Cavazzuti, E. ; Cecchi, C. ; Charles, E. ; Chaves, R. C G ; Chekhtman, A. ; Cheung, C. C. ; Chiang, J. ; Chiaro, G. ; Ciprini, S. ; Claus, R. ; Cohen-Tanugi, J. ; Conrad, J. ; Cutini, S. ; D'Ammando, F. ; De Palma, F. ; Dermer, C. D. ; Digel, S. W. ; Do Couto E Silva, E. ; Domínguez, A. ; Drell, P. S. ; Drlica-Wagner, A. ; Favuzzi, C. ; Fegan, S. J. ; Focke, W. B. ; Franckowiak, A. ; Fukazawa, Y. ; Funk, S. ; Fusco, P. ; Gargano, F. ; Gasparrini, D. ; Gehrels, N. ; Germani, S. ; Giglietto, N. ; Giordano, F. ; Giroletti, M. ; Glanzman, T. ; Godfrey, G. ; Grenier, I. A. ; Grove, J. E. ; Guiriec, S. ; Gustafsson, M. ; Hadasch, D. ; Hayashida, M. ; Hays, E. ; Jackson, M. S. ; Jogler, T. ; Kataoka, Jun ; Knödlseder, J. ; Kuss, M. ; Lande, J. ; Larsson, S. ; Latronico, L. ; Longo, F. ; Loparco, F. ; Lovellette, M. N. ; Lubrano, P. ; Mazziotta, M. N. ; McEnery, J. E. ; Mehault, J. ; Michelson, P. F. ; Mizuno, T. ; Monte, C. ; Monzani, M. E. ; Morselli, A. ; Moskalenko, I. V. ; Murgia, S. ; Tramacere, A. ; Nuss, E. ; Greiner, J. ; Ohno, M. ; Ohsugi, T. ; Omodei, N. ; Orienti, M. ; Orlando, E. ; Ormes, J. F. ; Paneque, D. ; Perkins, J. S. ; Pesce-Rollins, M. ; Piron, F. ; Pivato, G. ; Porter, T. A. ; Rainò, S. ; Rando, R. ; Razzano, M. ; Razzaque, S. ; Reimer, A. ; Reimer, O. ; Reyes, L. C. ; Ritz, S. ; Rau, A. ; Romoli, C. ; Roth, M. ; Sánchez-Conde, M. ; Sanchez, D. A. ; Scargle, J. D. ; Sgrò, C. ; Siskind, E. J. ; Spandre, G. ; Spinelli, P. ; Stawarz, Łukasz ; Suson, D. J. ; Takahashi, H. ; Tanaka, T. ; Thayer, J. G. ; Thompson, D. J. ; Tibaldo, L. ; Tinivella, M. ; Torres, D. F. ; Tosti, G. ; Troja, E. ; Usher, T. L. ; Vandenbroucke, J. ; Vasileiou, V. ; Vianello, G. ; Vitale, V. ; Waite, A. P. ; Winer, B. L. ; Wood, K. S. ; Wood, M. / The imprint of the extragalactic background light in the gamma-ray spectra of blazars. In: Science. 2012 ; Vol. 338, No. 6111. pp. 1190-1192.
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    title = "The imprint of the extragalactic background light in the gamma-ray spectra of blazars",
    abstract = "The light emitted by stars and accreting compact objects through the history of the universe is encoded in the intensity of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Knowledge of the EBL is important to understand the nature of star formation and galaxy evolution, but direct measurements of the EBL are limited by galactic and other foreground emissions. Here, we report an absorption feature seen in the combined spectra of a sample of gamma-ray blazars out to a redshift of z ∼ 1.6. This feature is caused by attenuation of gamma rays by the EBL at optical to ultraviolet frequencies and allowed us to measure the EBL flux density in this frequency band.",
    author = "M. Ackermann and M. Ajello and A. Allafort and P. Schady and L. Baldini and J. Ballet and G. Barbiellini and D. Bastieri and R. Bellazzini and Blandford, {R. D.} and Bloom, {E. D.} and Borgland, {A. W.} and E. Bottacini and A. Bouvier and J. Bregeon and M. Brigida and P. Bruel and R. Buehler and S. Buson and Caliandro, {G. A.} and Cameron, {R. A.} and Caraveo, {P. A.} and E. Cavazzuti and C. Cecchi and E. Charles and Chaves, {R. C G} and A. Chekhtman and Cheung, {C. C.} and J. Chiang and G. Chiaro and S. Ciprini and R. Claus and J. Cohen-Tanugi and J. Conrad and S. Cutini and F. D'Ammando and {De Palma}, F. and Dermer, {C. D.} and Digel, {S. W.} and {Do Couto E Silva}, E. and A. Dom{\'i}nguez and Drell, {P. S.} and A. Drlica-Wagner and C. Favuzzi and Fegan, {S. J.} and Focke, {W. B.} and A. Franckowiak and Y. Fukazawa and S. Funk and P. Fusco and F. Gargano and D. Gasparrini and N. Gehrels and S. Germani and N. Giglietto and F. Giordano and M. Giroletti and T. Glanzman and G. Godfrey and Grenier, {I. A.} and Grove, {J. E.} and S. Guiriec and M. Gustafsson and D. Hadasch and M. Hayashida and E. Hays and Jackson, {M. S.} and T. Jogler and Jun Kataoka and J. Kn{\"o}dlseder and M. Kuss and J. Lande and S. Larsson and L. Latronico and F. Longo and F. Loparco and Lovellette, {M. N.} and P. Lubrano and Mazziotta, {M. N.} and McEnery, {J. E.} and J. Mehault and Michelson, {P. F.} and T. Mizuno and C. Monte and Monzani, {M. E.} and A. Morselli and Moskalenko, {I. V.} and S. Murgia and A. Tramacere and E. Nuss and J. Greiner and M. Ohno and T. Ohsugi and N. Omodei and M. Orienti and E. Orlando and Ormes, {J. F.} and D. Paneque and Perkins, {J. S.} and M. Pesce-Rollins and F. Piron and G. Pivato and Porter, {T. A.} and S. Rain{\`o} and R. Rando and M. Razzano and S. Razzaque and A. Reimer and O. Reimer and Reyes, {L. C.} and S. Ritz and A. Rau and C. Romoli and M. Roth and M. S{\'a}nchez-Conde and Sanchez, {D. A.} and Scargle, {J. D.} and C. Sgr{\`o} and Siskind, {E. J.} and G. Spandre and P. Spinelli and Łukasz Stawarz and Suson, {D. J.} and H. Takahashi and T. Tanaka and Thayer, {J. G.} and Thompson, {D. J.} and L. Tibaldo and M. Tinivella and Torres, {D. F.} and G. Tosti and E. Troja and Usher, {T. L.} and J. Vandenbroucke and V. Vasileiou and G. Vianello and V. Vitale and Waite, {A. P.} and Winer, {B. L.} and Wood, {K. S.} and M. Wood",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The imprint of the extragalactic background light in the gamma-ray spectra of blazars

    AU - Ackermann, M.

    AU - Ajello, M.

    AU - Allafort, A.

    AU - Schady, P.

    AU - Baldini, L.

    AU - Ballet, J.

    AU - Barbiellini, G.

    AU - Bastieri, D.

    AU - Bellazzini, R.

    AU - Blandford, R. D.

    AU - Bloom, E. D.

    AU - Borgland, A. W.

    AU - Bottacini, E.

    AU - Bouvier, A.

    AU - Bregeon, J.

    AU - Brigida, M.

    AU - Bruel, P.

    AU - Buehler, R.

    AU - Buson, S.

    AU - Caliandro, G. A.

    AU - Cameron, R. A.

    AU - Caraveo, P. A.

    AU - Cavazzuti, E.

    AU - Cecchi, C.

    AU - Charles, E.

    AU - Chaves, R. C G

    AU - Chekhtman, A.

    AU - Cheung, C. C.

    AU - Chiang, J.

    AU - Chiaro, G.

    AU - Ciprini, S.

    AU - Claus, R.

    AU - Cohen-Tanugi, J.

    AU - Conrad, J.

    AU - Cutini, S.

    AU - D'Ammando, F.

    AU - De Palma, F.

    AU - Dermer, C. D.

    AU - Digel, S. W.

    AU - Do Couto E Silva, E.

    AU - Domínguez, A.

    AU - Drell, P. S.

    AU - Drlica-Wagner, A.

    AU - Favuzzi, C.

    AU - Fegan, S. J.

    AU - Focke, W. B.

    AU - Franckowiak, A.

    AU - Fukazawa, Y.

    AU - Funk, S.

    AU - Fusco, P.

    AU - Gargano, F.

    AU - Gasparrini, D.

    AU - Gehrels, N.

    AU - Germani, S.

    AU - Giglietto, N.

    AU - Giordano, F.

    AU - Giroletti, M.

    AU - Glanzman, T.

    AU - Godfrey, G.

    AU - Grenier, I. A.

    AU - Grove, J. E.

    AU - Guiriec, S.

    AU - Gustafsson, M.

    AU - Hadasch, D.

    AU - Hayashida, M.

    AU - Hays, E.

    AU - Jackson, M. S.

    AU - Jogler, T.

    AU - Kataoka, Jun

    AU - Knödlseder, J.

    AU - Kuss, M.

    AU - Lande, J.

    AU - Larsson, S.

    AU - Latronico, L.

    AU - Longo, F.

    AU - Loparco, F.

    AU - Lovellette, M. N.

    AU - Lubrano, P.

    AU - Mazziotta, M. N.

    AU - McEnery, J. E.

    AU - Mehault, J.

    AU - Michelson, P. F.

    AU - Mizuno, T.

    AU - Monte, C.

    AU - Monzani, M. E.

    AU - Morselli, A.

    AU - Moskalenko, I. V.

    AU - Murgia, S.

    AU - Tramacere, A.

    AU - Nuss, E.

    AU - Greiner, J.

    AU - Ohno, M.

    AU - Ohsugi, T.

    AU - Omodei, N.

    AU - Orienti, M.

    AU - Orlando, E.

    AU - Ormes, J. F.

    AU - Paneque, D.

    AU - Perkins, J. S.

    AU - Pesce-Rollins, M.

    AU - Piron, F.

    AU - Pivato, G.

    AU - Porter, T. A.

    AU - Rainò, S.

    AU - Rando, R.

    AU - Razzano, M.

    AU - Razzaque, S.

    AU - Reimer, A.

    AU - Reimer, O.

    AU - Reyes, L. C.

    AU - Ritz, S.

    AU - Rau, A.

    AU - Romoli, C.

    AU - Roth, M.

    AU - Sánchez-Conde, M.

    AU - Sanchez, D. A.

    AU - Scargle, J. D.

    AU - Sgrò, C.

    AU - Siskind, E. J.

    AU - Spandre, G.

    AU - Spinelli, P.

    AU - Stawarz, Łukasz

    AU - Suson, D. J.

    AU - Takahashi, H.

    AU - Tanaka, T.

    AU - Thayer, J. G.

    AU - Thompson, D. J.

    AU - Tibaldo, L.

    AU - Tinivella, M.

    AU - Torres, D. F.

    AU - Tosti, G.

    AU - Troja, E.

    AU - Usher, T. L.

    AU - Vandenbroucke, J.

    AU - Vasileiou, V.

    AU - Vianello, G.

    AU - Vitale, V.

    AU - Waite, A. P.

    AU - Winer, B. L.

    AU - Wood, K. S.

    AU - Wood, M.

    PY - 2012/11/30

    Y1 - 2012/11/30

    N2 - The light emitted by stars and accreting compact objects through the history of the universe is encoded in the intensity of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Knowledge of the EBL is important to understand the nature of star formation and galaxy evolution, but direct measurements of the EBL are limited by galactic and other foreground emissions. Here, we report an absorption feature seen in the combined spectra of a sample of gamma-ray blazars out to a redshift of z ∼ 1.6. This feature is caused by attenuation of gamma rays by the EBL at optical to ultraviolet frequencies and allowed us to measure the EBL flux density in this frequency band.

    AB - The light emitted by stars and accreting compact objects through the history of the universe is encoded in the intensity of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Knowledge of the EBL is important to understand the nature of star formation and galaxy evolution, but direct measurements of the EBL are limited by galactic and other foreground emissions. Here, we report an absorption feature seen in the combined spectra of a sample of gamma-ray blazars out to a redshift of z ∼ 1.6. This feature is caused by attenuation of gamma rays by the EBL at optical to ultraviolet frequencies and allowed us to measure the EBL flux density in this frequency band.

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    U2 - 10.1126/science.1227160

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