The influences of perceived experiences of contingency on junior high school student's helplessness: Standardization of the scale, and examination of the mechanism of cognition of contingency

Ikuko Maki, Yuka Sekiguchi, Sachie Yuiada, Kaneo Nedate

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


    The present study aimed at examining the mechanism of helplessness, by reconsidering contingency in learned helplessness theories. Studyl was to develop a perceived experience of contingency scale for junior high school students (PECS). A scale composed of two factors (contingent experiences ; non-contingent experiences) was developed, and the reliability and validity was demonstrated. Study2 compared scores on the PECS for students with school non-attendance and those without such a problem. No significant differences in the mean scores on each factor were found between the two groups. The result suggested that students without school non-attendance had lack of contingent experiences and much non-contingent experiences as much as students with such a problem. According to the result, the authors compared scores on the PECS for those with high helplessness and those with low helplessness behavior students in students who attend school. Significant differences in the mean scores on factorl were found between the two groups. The result suggested junior high school students' helolessness was caused by lack of contingent experiences rather than much non-contingent experiences.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)298-307
    Number of pages10
    JournalJapanese Journal of Educational Psychology
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2003 Sep



    • Contingency
    • Helplessness
    • Junior high school students
    • Learned helplessness

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Psychology(all)
    • Developmental and Educational Psychology

    Cite this