The MAXI mission on the ISS: Science and instruments for monitoring All-sky X-ray Images

Masaru Matsuoka, Kazuyoshi Kawasaki, Shiro Ueno, Hiroshi Tomida, Mitsuhiro Kohama, Motoko Suzuki, Yasuki Adachi, Masaki Ishikawa, Tatehiro Mihara, Mutsumi Sugizaki, Naoki Isobe, Yujin Nakagawa, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Emi Miyata, Nobuyuki Kawai, Jun Kataoka, Mikio Morii, Atsumasa Yoshida, Hitoshi Negoro, Motoki NakajimaYoshihiro Ueda, Hirotaka Chujo, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Osamu Yamazaki, Satoshi Nakahira, Tetsuya You, Ryoji Ishiwata, Sho Miyoshi, Satoshi Eguchi, Kazuo Hiroi, Haruyoshi Katayama, Ken Ebisawa

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    340 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) mission is the first astronomical payload to be installed on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF or Kibo-EF) on the International Space Station. It has two types of X-ray slit cameras with wide FOVs and two kinds of X-ray detectors consisting of gas proportional counters covering the energy range of 2 to 30 keV and X-ray CCDs covering the energy range of 0.5 to 12 keV. MAXI will be more powerful than any previous X-ray All Sky Monitor payloads, being able to monitor hundreds of Active Galactic Nuclei. A realistic simulation under optimal observation conditions suggests that MAXI will provide all-sky images of X-ray sources of ∼20 mCrab (∼7 × 10 -10ergcm -2s -1 in the energy band of 2-30 keV) from observations during one ISS orbit (90 min), ∼4.5 mCrab for one day, and ∼2 mCrab for one week. The final detectability of MAXI could be ∼0.2 mCrab for two years, which is comparable to the source confusion limit of the MAXI field of view (FOV). The MAXI objectives are: (1) to alert the community to X-ray novae and transient X-ray sources, (2) to monitor long-term variabilities of X-ray sources, (3) to stimulate multi-wavelength observations of variable objects, (4) to create unbiased X-ray source cataloges, and (5) to observe diffuse cosmic X-ray emissions, especially with better energy resolution for soft X-rays down to 0.5 keV.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)999-1010
    Number of pages12
    JournalPublications of the Astronomical Society of Japan
    Volume61
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 2009

    Fingerprint

    International Space Station
    sky
    monitors
    monitoring
    x rays
    science
    payloads
    energy
    coverings
    novae
    confusion
    proportional counters
    field of view
    active galactic nuclei

    Keywords

    • Catalogs: X-ray source catalogue
    • Instrumentation: All Sky Monitor (ASM)
    • Stars: X-ray novae
    • Stars: X-ray transients
    • X-ray: AGN
    • X-ray: GRB

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Astronomy and Astrophysics
    • Space and Planetary Science

    Cite this

    Matsuoka, M., Kawasaki, K., Ueno, S., Tomida, H., Kohama, M., Suzuki, M., ... Ebisawa, K. (2009). The MAXI mission on the ISS: Science and instruments for monitoring All-sky X-ray Images. Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, 61(5), 999-1010.

    The MAXI mission on the ISS : Science and instruments for monitoring All-sky X-ray Images. / Matsuoka, Masaru; Kawasaki, Kazuyoshi; Ueno, Shiro; Tomida, Hiroshi; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Motoko; Adachi, Yasuki; Ishikawa, Masaki; Mihara, Tatehiro; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Isobe, Naoki; Nakagawa, Yujin; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Miyata, Emi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kataoka, Jun; Morii, Mikio; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Negoro, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Chujo, Hirotaka; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamazaki, Osamu; Nakahira, Satoshi; You, Tetsuya; Ishiwata, Ryoji; Miyoshi, Sho; Eguchi, Satoshi; Hiroi, Kazuo; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Ebisawa, Ken.

    In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Vol. 61, No. 5, 2009, p. 999-1010.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Matsuoka, M, Kawasaki, K, Ueno, S, Tomida, H, Kohama, M, Suzuki, M, Adachi, Y, Ishikawa, M, Mihara, T, Sugizaki, M, Isobe, N, Nakagawa, Y, Tsunemi, H, Miyata, E, Kawai, N, Kataoka, J, Morii, M, Yoshida, A, Negoro, H, Nakajima, M, Ueda, Y, Chujo, H, Yamaoka, K, Yamazaki, O, Nakahira, S, You, T, Ishiwata, R, Miyoshi, S, Eguchi, S, Hiroi, K, Katayama, H & Ebisawa, K 2009, 'The MAXI mission on the ISS: Science and instruments for monitoring All-sky X-ray Images', Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 999-1010.
    Matsuoka M, Kawasaki K, Ueno S, Tomida H, Kohama M, Suzuki M et al. The MAXI mission on the ISS: Science and instruments for monitoring All-sky X-ray Images. Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 2009;61(5):999-1010.
    Matsuoka, Masaru ; Kawasaki, Kazuyoshi ; Ueno, Shiro ; Tomida, Hiroshi ; Kohama, Mitsuhiro ; Suzuki, Motoko ; Adachi, Yasuki ; Ishikawa, Masaki ; Mihara, Tatehiro ; Sugizaki, Mutsumi ; Isobe, Naoki ; Nakagawa, Yujin ; Tsunemi, Hiroshi ; Miyata, Emi ; Kawai, Nobuyuki ; Kataoka, Jun ; Morii, Mikio ; Yoshida, Atsumasa ; Negoro, Hitoshi ; Nakajima, Motoki ; Ueda, Yoshihiro ; Chujo, Hirotaka ; Yamaoka, Kazutaka ; Yamazaki, Osamu ; Nakahira, Satoshi ; You, Tetsuya ; Ishiwata, Ryoji ; Miyoshi, Sho ; Eguchi, Satoshi ; Hiroi, Kazuo ; Katayama, Haruyoshi ; Ebisawa, Ken. / The MAXI mission on the ISS : Science and instruments for monitoring All-sky X-ray Images. In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 2009 ; Vol. 61, No. 5. pp. 999-1010.
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    abstract = "The Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) mission is the first astronomical payload to be installed on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF or Kibo-EF) on the International Space Station. It has two types of X-ray slit cameras with wide FOVs and two kinds of X-ray detectors consisting of gas proportional counters covering the energy range of 2 to 30 keV and X-ray CCDs covering the energy range of 0.5 to 12 keV. MAXI will be more powerful than any previous X-ray All Sky Monitor payloads, being able to monitor hundreds of Active Galactic Nuclei. A realistic simulation under optimal observation conditions suggests that MAXI will provide all-sky images of X-ray sources of ∼20 mCrab (∼7 × 10 -10ergcm -2s -1 in the energy band of 2-30 keV) from observations during one ISS orbit (90 min), ∼4.5 mCrab for one day, and ∼2 mCrab for one week. The final detectability of MAXI could be ∼0.2 mCrab for two years, which is comparable to the source confusion limit of the MAXI field of view (FOV). The MAXI objectives are: (1) to alert the community to X-ray novae and transient X-ray sources, (2) to monitor long-term variabilities of X-ray sources, (3) to stimulate multi-wavelength observations of variable objects, (4) to create unbiased X-ray source cataloges, and (5) to observe diffuse cosmic X-ray emissions, especially with better energy resolution for soft X-rays down to 0.5 keV.",
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    author = "Masaru Matsuoka and Kazuyoshi Kawasaki and Shiro Ueno and Hiroshi Tomida and Mitsuhiro Kohama and Motoko Suzuki and Yasuki Adachi and Masaki Ishikawa and Tatehiro Mihara and Mutsumi Sugizaki and Naoki Isobe and Yujin Nakagawa and Hiroshi Tsunemi and Emi Miyata and Nobuyuki Kawai and Jun Kataoka and Mikio Morii and Atsumasa Yoshida and Hitoshi Negoro and Motoki Nakajima and Yoshihiro Ueda and Hirotaka Chujo and Kazutaka Yamaoka and Osamu Yamazaki and Satoshi Nakahira and Tetsuya You and Ryoji Ishiwata and Sho Miyoshi and Satoshi Eguchi and Kazuo Hiroi and Haruyoshi Katayama and Ken Ebisawa",
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    AU - Matsuoka, Masaru

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    AU - Ueno, Shiro

    AU - Tomida, Hiroshi

    AU - Kohama, Mitsuhiro

    AU - Suzuki, Motoko

    AU - Adachi, Yasuki

    AU - Ishikawa, Masaki

    AU - Mihara, Tatehiro

    AU - Sugizaki, Mutsumi

    AU - Isobe, Naoki

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    AU - Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    AU - Miyata, Emi

    AU - Kawai, Nobuyuki

    AU - Kataoka, Jun

    AU - Morii, Mikio

    AU - Yoshida, Atsumasa

    AU - Negoro, Hitoshi

    AU - Nakajima, Motoki

    AU - Ueda, Yoshihiro

    AU - Chujo, Hirotaka

    AU - Yamaoka, Kazutaka

    AU - Yamazaki, Osamu

    AU - Nakahira, Satoshi

    AU - You, Tetsuya

    AU - Ishiwata, Ryoji

    AU - Miyoshi, Sho

    AU - Eguchi, Satoshi

    AU - Hiroi, Kazuo

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    AU - Ebisawa, Ken

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    KW - Instrumentation: All Sky Monitor (ASM)

    KW - Stars: X-ray novae

    KW - Stars: X-ray transients

    KW - X-ray: AGN

    KW - X-ray: GRB

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