The on-orbit calibration of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, J. Ampe, B. Anderson, W. B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, R. Bagagli, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, J. Bartelt, D. Bastieri, B. M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, D. Bédérède, F. Bellardi, R. Bellazzini, F. Belli, B. Berenji & 228 others D. Bisello, E. Bissaldi, E. D. Bloom, G. Bogaert, J. R. Bogart, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, P. Bourgeois, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T. H. Burnett, G. Busetto, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, M. Campell, P. A. Caraveo, S. Carius, P. Carlson, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, M. Ceccanti, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, R. Chipaux, A. N. Cillis, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Condamoor, J. Conrad, R. Corbet, S. Cutini, D. S. Davis, M. DeKlotz, C. D. Dermer, A. de Angelis, F. de Palma, S. W. Digel, P. Dizon, M. Dormody, E. do Couto e Silva, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, Y. Edmonds, D. Fabiani, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, E. C. Ferrara, O. Ferreira, Z. Fewtrell, D. L. Flath, P. Fleury, W. B. Focke, K. Fouts, M. Frailis, D. Freytag, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, J. Goodman, I. A. Grenier, M. H. Grondin, J. E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, M. Hakimi, G. Haller, Y. Hanabata, P. A. Hart, P. Hascall, E. Hays, M. Huffer, R. E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, R. P. Johnson, T. J. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, Jun Kataoka, A. Kavelaars, H. Kelly, M. Kerr, W. Klamra, J. Knödlseder, M. L. Kocian, F. Kuehn, M. Kuss, L. Latronico, C. Lavalley, B. Leas, B. Lee, S. H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, D. K. Lung, G. M. Madejski, A. Makeev, B. Marangelli, M. Marchetti, M. M. Massai, D. May, G. Mazzenga, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, S. McGlynn, C. Meurer, P. F. Michelson, M. Minuti, N. Mirizzi, P. Mitra, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, M. Mongelli, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, E. Moretti, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, D. Nelson, L. Nilsson, S. Nishino, P. L. Nolan, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, A. Paccagnella, D. Paneque, J. H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, P. Picozza, M. Pinchera, F. Piron, T. A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, E. Rapposelli, W. Raynor, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, L. C. Reyes, S. Ritz, S. Robinson, L. S. Rochester, A. Y. Rodriguez, R. W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, A. Sacchetti, H. F W Sadrozinski, N. Saggini, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, L. Sapozhnikov, O. H. Saxton, P. M. Saz Parkinson, A. Sellerholm, C. Sgrò, E. J. Siskind, D. A. Smith, P. D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, J. L. Starck, T. E. Stephens, M. S. Strickman, A. W. Strong, M. Sugizaki, D. J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, A. Tenze, J. B. Thayer, J. G. Thayer, D. J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D. F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, M. Turri, T. L. Usher, N. Vilchez, N. Virmani, V. Vitale, L. L. Wai, A. P. Waite, P. Wang, B. L. Winer, D. L. Wood, K. S. Wood, H. Yasuda, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    128 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope began its on-orbit operations on June 23, 2008. Calibrations, defined in a generic sense, correspond to synchronization of trigger signals, optimization of delays for latching data, determination of detector thresholds, gains and responses, evaluation of the perimeter of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), measurements of live time, of absolute time, and internal and spacecraft boresight alignments. Here we describe on-orbit calibration results obtained using known astrophysical sources, galactic cosmic rays, and charge injection into the front-end electronics of each detector. Instrument response functions will be described in a separate publication. This paper demonstrates the stability of calibrations and describes minor changes observed since launch. These results have been used to calibrate the LAT datasets to be publicly released in August 2009.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)193-219
    Number of pages27
    JournalAstroparticle Physics
    Volume32
    Issue number3-4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2009 Oct

    Fingerprint

    telescopes
    boresights
    orbits
    Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
    synchronism
    astrophysics
    spacecraft
    actuators
    alignment
    injection
    anomalies
    optimization
    evaluation
    detectors
    electronics

    Keywords

    • Calibrations
    • Fermi
    • FGST
    • Gamma-ray
    • GLAST
    • LAT
    • Telescope

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Cite this

    Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Ampe, J., Anderson, B., Atwood, W. B., ... Ziegler, M. (2009). The on-orbit calibration of the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Astroparticle Physics, 32(3-4), 193-219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2009.08.002

    The on-orbit calibration of the Fermi Large Area Telescope. / Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Ampe, J.; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bartelt, J.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bédérède, D.; Bellardi, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Belli, F.; Berenji, B.; Bisello, D.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bogaert, G.; Bogart, J. R.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bourgeois, P.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Campell, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carius, S.; Carlson, P.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Ceccanti, M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chipaux, R.; Cillis, A. N.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Condamoor, S.; Conrad, J.; Corbet, R.; Cutini, S.; Davis, D. S.; DeKlotz, M.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Dizon, P.; Dormody, M.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Edmonds, Y.; Fabiani, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Ferreira, O.; Fewtrell, Z.; Flath, D. L.; Fleury, P.; Focke, W. B.; Fouts, K.; Frailis, M.; Freytag, D.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Goodman, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hakimi, M.; Haller, G.; Hanabata, Y.; Hart, P. A.; Hascall, P.; Hays, E.; Huffer, M.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, Jun; Kavelaars, A.; Kelly, H.; Kerr, M.; Klamra, W.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocian, M. L.; Kuehn, F.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Lavalley, C.; Leas, B.; Lee, B.; Lee, S. H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lung, D. K.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Marangelli, B.; Marchetti, M.; Massai, M. M.; May, D.; Mazzenga, G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Minuti, M.; Mirizzi, N.; Mitra, P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mongelli, M.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nelson, D.; Nilsson, L.; Nishino, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Picozza, P.; Pinchera, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Rapposelli, E.; Raynor, W.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Reyes, L. C.; Ritz, S.; Robinson, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sacchetti, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F W; Saggini, N.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Saxton, O. H.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sellerholm, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Starck, J. L.; Stephens, T. E.; Strickman, M. S.; Strong, A. W.; Sugizaki, M.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Tenze, A.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Turri, M.; Usher, T. L.; Vilchez, N.; Virmani, N.; Vitale, V.; Wai, L. L.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yasuda, H.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    In: Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 32, No. 3-4, 10.2009, p. 193-219.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abdo, AA, Ackermann, M, Ajello, M, Ampe, J, Anderson, B, Atwood, WB, Axelsson, M, Bagagli, R, Baldini, L, Ballet, J, Barbiellini, G, Bartelt, J, Bastieri, D, Baughman, BM, Bechtol, K, Bédérède, D, Bellardi, F, Bellazzini, R, Belli, F, Berenji, B, Bisello, D, Bissaldi, E, Bloom, ED, Bogaert, G, Bogart, JR, Bonamente, E, Borgland, AW, Bourgeois, P, Bouvier, A, Bregeon, J, Brez, A, Brigida, M, Bruel, P, Burnett, TH, Busetto, G, Caliandro, GA, Cameron, RA, Campell, M, Caraveo, PA, Carius, S, Carlson, P, Casandjian, JM, Cavazzuti, E, Ceccanti, M, Cecchi, C, Charles, E, Chekhtman, A, Cheung, CC, Chiang, J, Chipaux, R, Cillis, AN, Ciprini, S, Claus, R, Cohen-Tanugi, J, Condamoor, S, Conrad, J, Corbet, R, Cutini, S, Davis, DS, DeKlotz, M, Dermer, CD, de Angelis, A, de Palma, F, Digel, SW, Dizon, P, Dormody, M, do Couto e Silva, E, Drell, PS, Dubois, R, Dumora, D, Edmonds, Y, Fabiani, D, Farnier, C, Favuzzi, C, Ferrara, EC, Ferreira, O, Fewtrell, Z, Flath, DL, Fleury, P, Focke, WB, Fouts, K, Frailis, M, Freytag, D, Fukazawa, Y, Funk, S, Fusco, P, Gargano, F, Gasparrini, D, Gehrels, N, Germani, S, Giebels, B, Giglietto, N, Giordano, F, Glanzman, T, Godfrey, G, Goodman, J, Grenier, IA, Grondin, MH, Grove, JE, Guillemot, L, Guiriec, S, Hakimi, M, Haller, G, Hanabata, Y, Hart, PA, Hascall, P, Hays, E, Huffer, M, Hughes, RE, Jóhannesson, G, Johnson, AS, Johnson, RP, Johnson, TJ, Johnson, WN, Kamae, T, Katagiri, H, Kataoka, J, Kavelaars, A, Kelly, H, Kerr, M, Klamra, W, Knödlseder, J, Kocian, ML, Kuehn, F, Kuss, M, Latronico, L, Lavalley, C, Leas, B, Lee, B, Lee, SH, Lemoine-Goumard, M, Longo, F, Loparco, F, Lott, B, Lovellette, MN, Lubrano, P, Lung, DK, Madejski, GM, Makeev, A, Marangelli, B, Marchetti, M, Massai, MM, May, D, Mazzenga, G, Mazziotta, MN, McEnery, JE, McGlynn, S, Meurer, C, Michelson, PF, Minuti, M, Mirizzi, N, Mitra, P, Mitthumsiri, W, Mizuno, T, Moiseev, AA, Mongelli, M, Monte, C, Monzani, ME, Moretti, E, Morselli, A, Moskalenko, IV, Murgia, S, Nelson, D, Nilsson, L, Nishino, S, Nolan, PL, Nuss, E, Ohno, M, Ohsugi, T, Omodei, N, Orlando, E, Ormes, JF, Ozaki, M, Paccagnella, A, Paneque, D, Panetta, JH, Parent, D, Pelassa, V, Pepe, M, Pesce-Rollins, M, Picozza, P, Pinchera, M, Piron, F, Porter, TA, Rainò, S, Rando, R, Rapposelli, E, Raynor, W, Razzano, M, Reimer, A, Reimer, O, Reposeur, T, Reyes, LC, Ritz, S, Robinson, S, Rochester, LS, Rodriguez, AY, Romani, RW, Roth, M, Ryde, F, Sacchetti, A, Sadrozinski, HFW, Saggini, N, Sanchez, D, Sander, A, Sapozhnikov, L, Saxton, OH, Saz Parkinson, PM, Sellerholm, A, Sgrò, C, Siskind, EJ, Smith, DA, Smith, PD, Spandre, G, Spinelli, P, Starck, JL, Stephens, TE, Strickman, MS, Strong, AW, Sugizaki, M, Suson, DJ, Tajima, H, Takahashi, H, Takahashi, T, Tanaka, T, Tenze, A, Thayer, JB, Thayer, JG, Thompson, DJ, Tibaldo, L, Tibolla, O, Torres, DF, Tosti, G, Tramacere, A, Turri, M, Usher, TL, Vilchez, N, Virmani, N, Vitale, V, Wai, LL, Waite, AP, Wang, P, Winer, BL, Wood, DL, Wood, KS, Yasuda, H, Ylinen, T & Ziegler, M 2009, 'The on-orbit calibration of the Fermi Large Area Telescope', Astroparticle Physics, vol. 32, no. 3-4, pp. 193-219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2009.08.002
    Abdo AA, Ackermann M, Ajello M, Ampe J, Anderson B, Atwood WB et al. The on-orbit calibration of the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Astroparticle Physics. 2009 Oct;32(3-4):193-219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2009.08.002
    Abdo, A. A. ; Ackermann, M. ; Ajello, M. ; Ampe, J. ; Anderson, B. ; Atwood, W. B. ; Axelsson, M. ; Bagagli, R. ; Baldini, L. ; Ballet, J. ; Barbiellini, G. ; Bartelt, J. ; Bastieri, D. ; Baughman, B. M. ; Bechtol, K. ; Bédérède, D. ; Bellardi, F. ; Bellazzini, R. ; Belli, F. ; Berenji, B. ; Bisello, D. ; Bissaldi, E. ; Bloom, E. D. ; Bogaert, G. ; Bogart, J. R. ; Bonamente, E. ; Borgland, A. W. ; Bourgeois, P. ; Bouvier, A. ; Bregeon, J. ; Brez, A. ; Brigida, M. ; Bruel, P. ; Burnett, T. H. ; Busetto, G. ; Caliandro, G. A. ; Cameron, R. A. ; Campell, M. ; Caraveo, P. A. ; Carius, S. ; Carlson, P. ; Casandjian, J. M. ; Cavazzuti, E. ; Ceccanti, M. ; Cecchi, C. ; Charles, E. ; Chekhtman, A. ; Cheung, C. C. ; Chiang, J. ; Chipaux, R. ; Cillis, A. N. ; Ciprini, S. ; Claus, R. ; Cohen-Tanugi, J. ; Condamoor, S. ; Conrad, J. ; Corbet, R. ; Cutini, S. ; Davis, D. S. ; DeKlotz, M. ; Dermer, C. D. ; de Angelis, A. ; de Palma, F. ; Digel, S. W. ; Dizon, P. ; Dormody, M. ; do Couto e Silva, E. ; Drell, P. S. ; Dubois, R. ; Dumora, D. ; Edmonds, Y. ; Fabiani, D. ; Farnier, C. ; Favuzzi, C. ; Ferrara, E. C. ; Ferreira, O. ; Fewtrell, Z. ; Flath, D. L. ; Fleury, P. ; Focke, W. B. ; Fouts, K. ; Frailis, M. ; Freytag, D. ; Fukazawa, Y. ; Funk, S. ; Fusco, P. ; Gargano, F. ; Gasparrini, D. ; Gehrels, N. ; Germani, S. ; Giebels, B. ; Giglietto, N. ; Giordano, F. ; Glanzman, T. ; Godfrey, G. ; Goodman, J. ; Grenier, I. A. ; Grondin, M. H. ; Grove, J. E. ; Guillemot, L. ; Guiriec, S. ; Hakimi, M. ; Haller, G. ; Hanabata, Y. ; Hart, P. A. ; Hascall, P. ; Hays, E. ; Huffer, M. ; Hughes, R. E. ; Jóhannesson, G. ; Johnson, A. S. ; Johnson, R. P. ; Johnson, T. J. ; Johnson, W. N. ; Kamae, T. ; Katagiri, H. ; Kataoka, Jun ; Kavelaars, A. ; Kelly, H. ; Kerr, M. ; Klamra, W. ; Knödlseder, J. ; Kocian, M. L. ; Kuehn, F. ; Kuss, M. ; Latronico, L. ; Lavalley, C. ; Leas, B. ; Lee, B. ; Lee, S. H. ; Lemoine-Goumard, M. ; Longo, F. ; Loparco, F. ; Lott, B. ; Lovellette, M. N. ; Lubrano, P. ; Lung, D. K. ; Madejski, G. M. ; Makeev, A. ; Marangelli, B. ; Marchetti, M. ; Massai, M. M. ; May, D. ; Mazzenga, G. ; Mazziotta, M. N. ; McEnery, J. E. ; McGlynn, S. ; Meurer, C. ; Michelson, P. F. ; Minuti, M. ; Mirizzi, N. ; Mitra, P. ; Mitthumsiri, W. ; Mizuno, T. ; Moiseev, A. A. ; Mongelli, M. ; Monte, C. ; Monzani, M. E. ; Moretti, E. ; Morselli, A. ; Moskalenko, I. V. ; Murgia, S. ; Nelson, D. ; Nilsson, L. ; Nishino, S. ; Nolan, P. L. ; Nuss, E. ; Ohno, M. ; Ohsugi, T. ; Omodei, N. ; Orlando, E. ; Ormes, J. F. ; Ozaki, M. ; Paccagnella, A. ; Paneque, D. ; Panetta, J. H. ; Parent, D. ; Pelassa, V. ; Pepe, M. ; Pesce-Rollins, M. ; Picozza, P. ; Pinchera, M. ; Piron, F. ; Porter, T. A. ; Rainò, S. ; Rando, R. ; Rapposelli, E. ; Raynor, W. ; Razzano, M. ; Reimer, A. ; Reimer, O. ; Reposeur, T. ; Reyes, L. C. ; Ritz, S. ; Robinson, S. ; Rochester, L. S. ; Rodriguez, A. Y. ; Romani, R. W. ; Roth, M. ; Ryde, F. ; Sacchetti, A. ; Sadrozinski, H. F W ; Saggini, N. ; Sanchez, D. ; Sander, A. ; Sapozhnikov, L. ; Saxton, O. H. ; Saz Parkinson, P. M. ; Sellerholm, A. ; Sgrò, C. ; Siskind, E. J. ; Smith, D. A. ; Smith, P. D. ; Spandre, G. ; Spinelli, P. ; Starck, J. L. ; Stephens, T. E. ; Strickman, M. S. ; Strong, A. W. ; Sugizaki, M. ; Suson, D. J. ; Tajima, H. ; Takahashi, H. ; Takahashi, T. ; Tanaka, T. ; Tenze, A. ; Thayer, J. B. ; Thayer, J. G. ; Thompson, D. J. ; Tibaldo, L. ; Tibolla, O. ; Torres, D. F. ; Tosti, G. ; Tramacere, A. ; Turri, M. ; Usher, T. L. ; Vilchez, N. ; Virmani, N. ; Vitale, V. ; Wai, L. L. ; Waite, A. P. ; Wang, P. ; Winer, B. L. ; Wood, D. L. ; Wood, K. S. ; Yasuda, H. ; Ylinen, T. ; Ziegler, M. / The on-orbit calibration of the Fermi Large Area Telescope. In: Astroparticle Physics. 2009 ; Vol. 32, No. 3-4. pp. 193-219.
    @article{617111b2c58e4c63ae95dc5e8150ee5a,
    title = "The on-orbit calibration of the Fermi Large Area Telescope",
    abstract = "The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope began its on-orbit operations on June 23, 2008. Calibrations, defined in a generic sense, correspond to synchronization of trigger signals, optimization of delays for latching data, determination of detector thresholds, gains and responses, evaluation of the perimeter of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), measurements of live time, of absolute time, and internal and spacecraft boresight alignments. Here we describe on-orbit calibration results obtained using known astrophysical sources, galactic cosmic rays, and charge injection into the front-end electronics of each detector. Instrument response functions will be described in a separate publication. This paper demonstrates the stability of calibrations and describes minor changes observed since launch. These results have been used to calibrate the LAT datasets to be publicly released in August 2009.",
    keywords = "Calibrations, Fermi, FGST, Gamma-ray, GLAST, LAT, Telescope",
    author = "Abdo, {A. A.} and M. Ackermann and M. Ajello and J. Ampe and B. Anderson and Atwood, {W. B.} and M. Axelsson and R. Bagagli and L. Baldini and J. Ballet and G. Barbiellini and J. Bartelt and D. Bastieri and Baughman, {B. M.} and K. Bechtol and D. B{\'e}d{\'e}r{\`e}de and F. Bellardi and R. Bellazzini and F. Belli and B. Berenji and D. Bisello and E. Bissaldi and Bloom, {E. D.} and G. Bogaert and Bogart, {J. R.} and E. Bonamente and Borgland, {A. W.} and P. Bourgeois and A. Bouvier and J. Bregeon and A. Brez and M. Brigida and P. Bruel and Burnett, {T. H.} and G. Busetto and Caliandro, {G. A.} and Cameron, {R. A.} and M. Campell and Caraveo, {P. A.} and S. Carius and P. Carlson and Casandjian, {J. M.} and E. Cavazzuti and M. Ceccanti and C. Cecchi and E. Charles and A. Chekhtman and Cheung, {C. C.} and J. Chiang and R. Chipaux and Cillis, {A. N.} and S. Ciprini and R. Claus and J. Cohen-Tanugi and S. Condamoor and J. Conrad and R. Corbet and S. Cutini and Davis, {D. S.} and M. DeKlotz and Dermer, {C. D.} and {de Angelis}, A. and {de Palma}, F. and Digel, {S. W.} and P. Dizon and M. Dormody and {do Couto e Silva}, E. and Drell, {P. S.} and R. Dubois and D. Dumora and Y. Edmonds and D. Fabiani and C. Farnier and C. Favuzzi and Ferrara, {E. C.} and O. Ferreira and Z. Fewtrell and Flath, {D. L.} and P. Fleury and Focke, {W. B.} and K. Fouts and M. Frailis and D. Freytag and Y. Fukazawa and S. Funk and P. Fusco and F. Gargano and D. Gasparrini and N. Gehrels and S. Germani and B. Giebels and N. Giglietto and F. Giordano and T. Glanzman and G. Godfrey and J. Goodman and Grenier, {I. A.} and Grondin, {M. H.} and Grove, {J. E.} and L. Guillemot and S. Guiriec and M. Hakimi and G. Haller and Y. Hanabata and Hart, {P. A.} and P. Hascall and E. Hays and M. Huffer and Hughes, {R. E.} and G. J{\'o}hannesson and Johnson, {A. S.} and Johnson, {R. P.} and Johnson, {T. J.} and Johnson, {W. N.} and T. Kamae and H. Katagiri and Jun Kataoka and A. Kavelaars and H. Kelly and M. Kerr and W. Klamra and J. Kn{\"o}dlseder and Kocian, {M. L.} and F. Kuehn and M. Kuss and L. Latronico and C. Lavalley and B. Leas and B. Lee and Lee, {S. H.} and M. Lemoine-Goumard and F. Longo and F. Loparco and B. Lott and Lovellette, {M. N.} and P. Lubrano and Lung, {D. K.} and Madejski, {G. M.} and A. Makeev and B. Marangelli and M. Marchetti and Massai, {M. M.} and D. May and G. Mazzenga and Mazziotta, {M. N.} and McEnery, {J. E.} and S. McGlynn and C. Meurer and Michelson, {P. F.} and M. Minuti and N. Mirizzi and P. Mitra and W. Mitthumsiri and T. Mizuno and Moiseev, {A. A.} and M. Mongelli and C. Monte and Monzani, {M. E.} and E. Moretti and A. Morselli and Moskalenko, {I. V.} and S. Murgia and D. Nelson and L. Nilsson and S. Nishino and Nolan, {P. L.} and E. Nuss and M. Ohno and T. Ohsugi and N. Omodei and E. Orlando and Ormes, {J. F.} and M. Ozaki and A. Paccagnella and D. Paneque and Panetta, {J. H.} and D. Parent and V. Pelassa and M. Pepe and M. Pesce-Rollins and P. Picozza and M. Pinchera and F. Piron and Porter, {T. A.} and S. Rain{\`o} and R. Rando and E. Rapposelli and W. Raynor and M. Razzano and A. Reimer and O. Reimer and T. Reposeur and Reyes, {L. C.} and S. Ritz and S. Robinson and Rochester, {L. S.} and Rodriguez, {A. Y.} and Romani, {R. W.} and M. Roth and F. Ryde and A. Sacchetti and Sadrozinski, {H. F W} and N. Saggini and D. Sanchez and A. Sander and L. Sapozhnikov and Saxton, {O. H.} and {Saz Parkinson}, {P. M.} and A. Sellerholm and C. Sgr{\`o} and Siskind, {E. J.} and Smith, {D. A.} and Smith, {P. D.} and G. Spandre and P. Spinelli and Starck, {J. L.} and Stephens, {T. E.} and Strickman, {M. S.} and Strong, {A. W.} and M. Sugizaki and Suson, {D. J.} and H. Tajima and H. Takahashi and T. Takahashi and T. Tanaka and A. Tenze and Thayer, {J. B.} and Thayer, {J. G.} and Thompson, {D. J.} and L. Tibaldo and O. Tibolla and Torres, {D. F.} and G. Tosti and A. Tramacere and M. Turri and Usher, {T. L.} and N. Vilchez and N. Virmani and V. Vitale and Wai, {L. L.} and Waite, {A. P.} and P. Wang and Winer, {B. L.} and Wood, {D. L.} and Wood, {K. S.} and H. Yasuda and T. Ylinen and M. Ziegler",
    year = "2009",
    month = "10",
    doi = "10.1016/j.astropartphys.2009.08.002",
    language = "English",
    volume = "32",
    pages = "193--219",
    journal = "Astroparticle Physics",
    issn = "0927-6505",
    publisher = "Elsevier",
    number = "3-4",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The on-orbit calibration of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    AU - Abdo, A. A.

    AU - Ackermann, M.

    AU - Ajello, M.

    AU - Ampe, J.

    AU - Anderson, B.

    AU - Atwood, W. B.

    AU - Axelsson, M.

    AU - Bagagli, R.

    AU - Baldini, L.

    AU - Ballet, J.

    AU - Barbiellini, G.

    AU - Bartelt, J.

    AU - Bastieri, D.

    AU - Baughman, B. M.

    AU - Bechtol, K.

    AU - Bédérède, D.

    AU - Bellardi, F.

    AU - Bellazzini, R.

    AU - Belli, F.

    AU - Berenji, B.

    AU - Bisello, D.

    AU - Bissaldi, E.

    AU - Bloom, E. D.

    AU - Bogaert, G.

    AU - Bogart, J. R.

    AU - Bonamente, E.

    AU - Borgland, A. W.

    AU - Bourgeois, P.

    AU - Bouvier, A.

    AU - Bregeon, J.

    AU - Brez, A.

    AU - Brigida, M.

    AU - Bruel, P.

    AU - Burnett, T. H.

    AU - Busetto, G.

    AU - Caliandro, G. A.

    AU - Cameron, R. A.

    AU - Campell, M.

    AU - Caraveo, P. A.

    AU - Carius, S.

    AU - Carlson, P.

    AU - Casandjian, J. M.

    AU - Cavazzuti, E.

    AU - Ceccanti, M.

    AU - Cecchi, C.

    AU - Charles, E.

    AU - Chekhtman, A.

    AU - Cheung, C. C.

    AU - Chiang, J.

    AU - Chipaux, R.

    AU - Cillis, A. N.

    AU - Ciprini, S.

    AU - Claus, R.

    AU - Cohen-Tanugi, J.

    AU - Condamoor, S.

    AU - Conrad, J.

    AU - Corbet, R.

    AU - Cutini, S.

    AU - Davis, D. S.

    AU - DeKlotz, M.

    AU - Dermer, C. D.

    AU - de Angelis, A.

    AU - de Palma, F.

    AU - Digel, S. W.

    AU - Dizon, P.

    AU - Dormody, M.

    AU - do Couto e Silva, E.

    AU - Drell, P. S.

    AU - Dubois, R.

    AU - Dumora, D.

    AU - Edmonds, Y.

    AU - Fabiani, D.

    AU - Farnier, C.

    AU - Favuzzi, C.

    AU - Ferrara, E. C.

    AU - Ferreira, O.

    AU - Fewtrell, Z.

    AU - Flath, D. L.

    AU - Fleury, P.

    AU - Focke, W. B.

    AU - Fouts, K.

    AU - Frailis, M.

    AU - Freytag, D.

    AU - Fukazawa, Y.

    AU - Funk, S.

    AU - Fusco, P.

    AU - Gargano, F.

    AU - Gasparrini, D.

    AU - Gehrels, N.

    AU - Germani, S.

    AU - Giebels, B.

    AU - Giglietto, N.

    AU - Giordano, F.

    AU - Glanzman, T.

    AU - Godfrey, G.

    AU - Goodman, J.

    AU - Grenier, I. A.

    AU - Grondin, M. H.

    AU - Grove, J. E.

    AU - Guillemot, L.

    AU - Guiriec, S.

    AU - Hakimi, M.

    AU - Haller, G.

    AU - Hanabata, Y.

    AU - Hart, P. A.

    AU - Hascall, P.

    AU - Hays, E.

    AU - Huffer, M.

    AU - Hughes, R. E.

    AU - Jóhannesson, G.

    AU - Johnson, A. S.

    AU - Johnson, R. P.

    AU - Johnson, T. J.

    AU - Johnson, W. N.

    AU - Kamae, T.

    AU - Katagiri, H.

    AU - Kataoka, Jun

    AU - Kavelaars, A.

    AU - Kelly, H.

    AU - Kerr, M.

    AU - Klamra, W.

    AU - Knödlseder, J.

    AU - Kocian, M. L.

    AU - Kuehn, F.

    AU - Kuss, M.

    AU - Latronico, L.

    AU - Lavalley, C.

    AU - Leas, B.

    AU - Lee, B.

    AU - Lee, S. H.

    AU - Lemoine-Goumard, M.

    AU - Longo, F.

    AU - Loparco, F.

    AU - Lott, B.

    AU - Lovellette, M. N.

    AU - Lubrano, P.

    AU - Lung, D. K.

    AU - Madejski, G. M.

    AU - Makeev, A.

    AU - Marangelli, B.

    AU - Marchetti, M.

    AU - Massai, M. M.

    AU - May, D.

    AU - Mazzenga, G.

    AU - Mazziotta, M. N.

    AU - McEnery, J. E.

    AU - McGlynn, S.

    AU - Meurer, C.

    AU - Michelson, P. F.

    AU - Minuti, M.

    AU - Mirizzi, N.

    AU - Mitra, P.

    AU - Mitthumsiri, W.

    AU - Mizuno, T.

    AU - Moiseev, A. A.

    AU - Mongelli, M.

    AU - Monte, C.

    AU - Monzani, M. E.

    AU - Moretti, E.

    AU - Morselli, A.

    AU - Moskalenko, I. V.

    AU - Murgia, S.

    AU - Nelson, D.

    AU - Nilsson, L.

    AU - Nishino, S.

    AU - Nolan, P. L.

    AU - Nuss, E.

    AU - Ohno, M.

    AU - Ohsugi, T.

    AU - Omodei, N.

    AU - Orlando, E.

    AU - Ormes, J. F.

    AU - Ozaki, M.

    AU - Paccagnella, A.

    AU - Paneque, D.

    AU - Panetta, J. H.

    AU - Parent, D.

    AU - Pelassa, V.

    AU - Pepe, M.

    AU - Pesce-Rollins, M.

    AU - Picozza, P.

    AU - Pinchera, M.

    AU - Piron, F.

    AU - Porter, T. A.

    AU - Rainò, S.

    AU - Rando, R.

    AU - Rapposelli, E.

    AU - Raynor, W.

    AU - Razzano, M.

    AU - Reimer, A.

    AU - Reimer, O.

    AU - Reposeur, T.

    AU - Reyes, L. C.

    AU - Ritz, S.

    AU - Robinson, S.

    AU - Rochester, L. S.

    AU - Rodriguez, A. Y.

    AU - Romani, R. W.

    AU - Roth, M.

    AU - Ryde, F.

    AU - Sacchetti, A.

    AU - Sadrozinski, H. F W

    AU - Saggini, N.

    AU - Sanchez, D.

    AU - Sander, A.

    AU - Sapozhnikov, L.

    AU - Saxton, O. H.

    AU - Saz Parkinson, P. M.

    AU - Sellerholm, A.

    AU - Sgrò, C.

    AU - Siskind, E. J.

    AU - Smith, D. A.

    AU - Smith, P. D.

    AU - Spandre, G.

    AU - Spinelli, P.

    AU - Starck, J. L.

    AU - Stephens, T. E.

    AU - Strickman, M. S.

    AU - Strong, A. W.

    AU - Sugizaki, M.

    AU - Suson, D. J.

    AU - Tajima, H.

    AU - Takahashi, H.

    AU - Takahashi, T.

    AU - Tanaka, T.

    AU - Tenze, A.

    AU - Thayer, J. B.

    AU - Thayer, J. G.

    AU - Thompson, D. J.

    AU - Tibaldo, L.

    AU - Tibolla, O.

    AU - Torres, D. F.

    AU - Tosti, G.

    AU - Tramacere, A.

    AU - Turri, M.

    AU - Usher, T. L.

    AU - Vilchez, N.

    AU - Virmani, N.

    AU - Vitale, V.

    AU - Wai, L. L.

    AU - Waite, A. P.

    AU - Wang, P.

    AU - Winer, B. L.

    AU - Wood, D. L.

    AU - Wood, K. S.

    AU - Yasuda, H.

    AU - Ylinen, T.

    AU - Ziegler, M.

    PY - 2009/10

    Y1 - 2009/10

    N2 - The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope began its on-orbit operations on June 23, 2008. Calibrations, defined in a generic sense, correspond to synchronization of trigger signals, optimization of delays for latching data, determination of detector thresholds, gains and responses, evaluation of the perimeter of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), measurements of live time, of absolute time, and internal and spacecraft boresight alignments. Here we describe on-orbit calibration results obtained using known astrophysical sources, galactic cosmic rays, and charge injection into the front-end electronics of each detector. Instrument response functions will be described in a separate publication. This paper demonstrates the stability of calibrations and describes minor changes observed since launch. These results have been used to calibrate the LAT datasets to be publicly released in August 2009.

    AB - The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope began its on-orbit operations on June 23, 2008. Calibrations, defined in a generic sense, correspond to synchronization of trigger signals, optimization of delays for latching data, determination of detector thresholds, gains and responses, evaluation of the perimeter of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), measurements of live time, of absolute time, and internal and spacecraft boresight alignments. Here we describe on-orbit calibration results obtained using known astrophysical sources, galactic cosmic rays, and charge injection into the front-end electronics of each detector. Instrument response functions will be described in a separate publication. This paper demonstrates the stability of calibrations and describes minor changes observed since launch. These results have been used to calibrate the LAT datasets to be publicly released in August 2009.

    KW - Calibrations

    KW - Fermi

    KW - FGST

    KW - Gamma-ray

    KW - GLAST

    KW - LAT

    KW - Telescope

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=70449109153&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=70449109153&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2009.08.002

    DO - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2009.08.002

    M3 - Article

    VL - 32

    SP - 193

    EP - 219

    JO - Astroparticle Physics

    JF - Astroparticle Physics

    SN - 0927-6505

    IS - 3-4

    ER -