The presence of pseudouridine in the anticodon alters the genetic code: A possible mechanism for assignment of the AAA lysine codon as asparagine in echinoderm mitochondria

Kozo Tomita, Takuya Ueda, Kimitsuna Watanabe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

It has been inferred from DNA sequence analyses that in echinoderm mitochondria not only the usual asparagine codons AAU and AAC, but also the usual lysine codon AAA, are translated as asparagine by a single mitochondrial (mt) tRNA(Asn) with the anticodon GUU. Nucleotide sequencing of starfish mt tRNA(Asn) revealed that the anticodon is GΨU, U35 at the anticodon second position being modified to pseudouridine (Ψ). In contrast, mt tRNA(LyS), corresponding to another lysine codon, AAG, has the anticodon CUU. mt tRNAs possessing anticodons closely related to that of tRNA(Asn), but responsible for decoding only two codons each - tRNA(His), tRNA(Asp) and tRNA(Tyr) - were found to possess unmodified U35 in all cases, suggesting the importance of Ψ35 for decoding the three codons. Therefore, the decoding capabilities of two synthetic Escherichia coli tRNA(Ala) variants with the anticodon GΨU or GUU were examined using an E. coli in vitro translation system. Both tRNAs could translate not only AAC and AAU with similar efficiency, but also AAA with an efficiency that was ~2-fold higher in the case of tRNA(Ala)GΨU than tRNA(Ala)GUU. These findings imply that Ψ35 of echinoderm mt tRNA(Asn) actually serves to decode the unusual asparagine codon AAA, resulting in the alteration of the genetic code in echinoderm mitochondria.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1683-1689
Number of pages7
JournalNucleic acids research
Volume27
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1999 Apr 1
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Pseudouridine
Genetic Code
Anticodon
Asparagine
RNA, Transfer, Asn
Codon
Lysine
Mitochondria
RNA, Transfer, Ala
Transfer RNA
RNA, Transfer, His
RNA, Transfer, Asp
RNA, Transfer, Tyr
Starfish
Escherichia coli
DNA Sequence Analysis
Nucleotides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics

Cite this

@article{34a81d5e11f74ccf8a4d20daa1a138a2,
title = "The presence of pseudouridine in the anticodon alters the genetic code: A possible mechanism for assignment of the AAA lysine codon as asparagine in echinoderm mitochondria",
abstract = "It has been inferred from DNA sequence analyses that in echinoderm mitochondria not only the usual asparagine codons AAU and AAC, but also the usual lysine codon AAA, are translated as asparagine by a single mitochondrial (mt) tRNA(Asn) with the anticodon GUU. Nucleotide sequencing of starfish mt tRNA(Asn) revealed that the anticodon is GΨU, U35 at the anticodon second position being modified to pseudouridine (Ψ). In contrast, mt tRNA(LyS), corresponding to another lysine codon, AAG, has the anticodon CUU. mt tRNAs possessing anticodons closely related to that of tRNA(Asn), but responsible for decoding only two codons each - tRNA(His), tRNA(Asp) and tRNA(Tyr) - were found to possess unmodified U35 in all cases, suggesting the importance of Ψ35 for decoding the three codons. Therefore, the decoding capabilities of two synthetic Escherichia coli tRNA(Ala) variants with the anticodon GΨU or GUU were examined using an E. coli in vitro translation system. Both tRNAs could translate not only AAC and AAU with similar efficiency, but also AAA with an efficiency that was ~2-fold higher in the case of tRNA(Ala)GΨU than tRNA(Ala)GUU. These findings imply that Ψ35 of echinoderm mt tRNA(Asn) actually serves to decode the unusual asparagine codon AAA, resulting in the alteration of the genetic code in echinoderm mitochondria.",
author = "Kozo Tomita and Takuya Ueda and Kimitsuna Watanabe",
year = "1999",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1093/nar/27.7.1683",
language = "English",
volume = "27",
pages = "1683--1689",
journal = "Nucleic Acids Research",
issn = "0305-1048",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The presence of pseudouridine in the anticodon alters the genetic code

T2 - A possible mechanism for assignment of the AAA lysine codon as asparagine in echinoderm mitochondria

AU - Tomita, Kozo

AU - Ueda, Takuya

AU - Watanabe, Kimitsuna

PY - 1999/4/1

Y1 - 1999/4/1

N2 - It has been inferred from DNA sequence analyses that in echinoderm mitochondria not only the usual asparagine codons AAU and AAC, but also the usual lysine codon AAA, are translated as asparagine by a single mitochondrial (mt) tRNA(Asn) with the anticodon GUU. Nucleotide sequencing of starfish mt tRNA(Asn) revealed that the anticodon is GΨU, U35 at the anticodon second position being modified to pseudouridine (Ψ). In contrast, mt tRNA(LyS), corresponding to another lysine codon, AAG, has the anticodon CUU. mt tRNAs possessing anticodons closely related to that of tRNA(Asn), but responsible for decoding only two codons each - tRNA(His), tRNA(Asp) and tRNA(Tyr) - were found to possess unmodified U35 in all cases, suggesting the importance of Ψ35 for decoding the three codons. Therefore, the decoding capabilities of two synthetic Escherichia coli tRNA(Ala) variants with the anticodon GΨU or GUU were examined using an E. coli in vitro translation system. Both tRNAs could translate not only AAC and AAU with similar efficiency, but also AAA with an efficiency that was ~2-fold higher in the case of tRNA(Ala)GΨU than tRNA(Ala)GUU. These findings imply that Ψ35 of echinoderm mt tRNA(Asn) actually serves to decode the unusual asparagine codon AAA, resulting in the alteration of the genetic code in echinoderm mitochondria.

AB - It has been inferred from DNA sequence analyses that in echinoderm mitochondria not only the usual asparagine codons AAU and AAC, but also the usual lysine codon AAA, are translated as asparagine by a single mitochondrial (mt) tRNA(Asn) with the anticodon GUU. Nucleotide sequencing of starfish mt tRNA(Asn) revealed that the anticodon is GΨU, U35 at the anticodon second position being modified to pseudouridine (Ψ). In contrast, mt tRNA(LyS), corresponding to another lysine codon, AAG, has the anticodon CUU. mt tRNAs possessing anticodons closely related to that of tRNA(Asn), but responsible for decoding only two codons each - tRNA(His), tRNA(Asp) and tRNA(Tyr) - were found to possess unmodified U35 in all cases, suggesting the importance of Ψ35 for decoding the three codons. Therefore, the decoding capabilities of two synthetic Escherichia coli tRNA(Ala) variants with the anticodon GΨU or GUU were examined using an E. coli in vitro translation system. Both tRNAs could translate not only AAC and AAU with similar efficiency, but also AAA with an efficiency that was ~2-fold higher in the case of tRNA(Ala)GΨU than tRNA(Ala)GUU. These findings imply that Ψ35 of echinoderm mt tRNA(Asn) actually serves to decode the unusual asparagine codon AAA, resulting in the alteration of the genetic code in echinoderm mitochondria.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033118871&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033118871&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/nar/27.7.1683

DO - 10.1093/nar/27.7.1683

M3 - Article

C2 - 10076000

AN - SCOPUS:0033118871

VL - 27

SP - 1683

EP - 1689

JO - Nucleic Acids Research

JF - Nucleic Acids Research

SN - 0305-1048

IS - 7

ER -