The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster

Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Naohisa Anabuki, Lorella Angelini, Keith Arnaud, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng Chiao, Paolo CoppiElisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Jan Willem Den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John Hughes, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Kazunori Ishibashi, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masayuki Itoh, Naoko Iyomoto, Jelle Kaastra, Timothy Kallman, Tuneyoshi Kamae, Erin Kara, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Junichiro Katsuta, Madoka Kawaharada, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard Kelley, Dmitry Khangulyan, Caroline Kilbourne, Ashley King, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Shu Koyama, Katsuji Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, François Lebrun, Shiu Hang Lee, Maurice Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Grzegorz Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric Miller, Jon Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Harvey Moseley, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Toshio Murakami, Richard Mushotzky, Ryo Nagino, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Toshio Nakano, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Masaharu Nomachi, Steve ODell, Hirokazu Odaka, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, Stephane Paltani, Arvind Parmar, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, Martin Pohl, F. Scott Porter, Katja Pottschmidt, Brian Ramsey, Christopher Reynolds, Helen Russell, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Hiroaki Sameshima, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter Serlemitsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall Smith, Yang Soong, Lukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shinichiro Takeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Keisuke Tamura, Takayuki Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki Tanaka, Makoto Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shiro Ueno, Shinichiro Uno, Meg Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Cor De Vries, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Daniel Wik, Dan Wilkins, Brian Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Y. Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Atsumasa Yoshida, Takayuki Yuasa, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    177 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Clusters of galaxies are the most massive gravitationally bound objects in the Universe and are still forming. They are thus important probes of cosmological parameters and many astrophysical processes. However, knowledge of the dynamics of the pervasive hot gas, the mass of which is much larger than the combined mass of all the stars in the cluster, is lacking. Such knowledge would enable insights into the injection of mechanical energy by the central supermassive black hole and the use of hydrostatic equilibrium for determining cluster masses. X-rays from the core of the Perseus cluster are emitted by the 50-million-kelvin diffuse hot plasma filling its gravitational potential well. The active galactic nucleus of the central galaxy NGC 1275 is pumping jetted energy into the surrounding intracluster medium, creating buoyant bubbles filled with relativistic plasma. These bubbles probably induce motions in the intracluster medium and heat the inner gas, preventing runaway radiative cooling - a process known as active galactic nucleus feedback. Here we report X-ray observations of the core of the Perseus cluster, which reveal a remarkably quiescent atmosphere in which the gas has a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of 164 ± 10 kilometres per second in the region 30-60 kiloparsecs from the central nucleus. A gradient in the line-of-sight velocity of 150 ± 70 kilometres per second is found across the 60-kiloparsec image of the cluster core. Turbulent pressure support in the gas is four per cent of the thermodynamic pressure, with large-scale shear at most doubling this estimate. We infer that a total cluster mass determined from hydrostatic equilibrium in a central region would require little correction for turbulent pressure.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)117-121
    Number of pages5
    JournalNature
    Volume535
    Issue number7610
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jul 6

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    hydrostatics
    active galactic nuclei
    line of sight
    bubbles
    gases
    galaxies
    relativistic plasmas
    high temperature gases
    high temperature plasmas
    gravitational fields
    astrophysics
    pumping
    x rays
    universe
    injection
    shear
    cooling
    atmospheres
    stars
    heat

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

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    Cite this

    Aharonian, F., Akamatsu, H., Akimoto, F., Allen, S. W., Anabuki, N., Angelini, L., ... Zoghbi, A. (2016). The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster. Nature, 535(7610), 117-121. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature18627

    The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster. / Aharonian, Felix; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Akimoto, Fumie; Allen, Steven W.; Anabuki, Naohisa; Angelini, Lorella; Arnaud, Keith; Audard, Marc; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Axelsson, Magnus; Bamba, Aya; Bautz, Marshall; Blandford, Roger; Brenneman, Laura; Brown, Gregory V.; Bulbul, Esra; Cackett, Edward; Chernyakova, Maria; Chiao, Meng; Coppi, Paolo; Costantini, Elisa; De Plaa, Jelle; Den Herder, Jan Willem; Done, Chris; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ebisawa, Ken; Eckart, Megan; Enoto, Teruaki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fabian, Andrew C.; Ferrigno, Carlo; Foster, Adam; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Gallo, Luigi; Gandhi, Poshak; Giustini, Margherita; Goldwurm, Andrea; Gu, Liyi; Guainazzi, Matteo; Haba, Yoshito; Hagino, Kouichi; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Harrus, Ilana; Hatsukade, Isamu; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Takayuki; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Hiraga, Junko; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hoshino, Akio; Hughes, John; Iizuka, Ryo; Inoue, Hajime; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Ishida, Manabu; Ishikawa, Kumi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Itoh, Masayuki; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kaastra, Jelle; Kallman, Timothy; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Kara, Erin; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuda, Satoru; Katsuta, Junichiro; Kawaharada, Madoka; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kelley, Richard; Khangulyan, Dmitry; Kilbourne, Caroline; King, Ashley; Kitaguchi, Takao; Kitamoto, Shunji; Kitayama, Tetsu; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Koyama, Shu; Koyama, Katsuji; Kretschmar, Peter; Krimm, Hans; Kubota, Aya; Kunieda, Hideyo; Laurent, Philippe; Lebrun, François; Lee, Shiu Hang; Leutenegger, Maurice; Limousin, Olivier; Loewenstein, Michael; Long, Knox S.; Lumb, David; Madejski, Grzegorz; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Maier, Daniel; Makishima, Kazuo; Markevitch, Maxim; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; McCammon, Dan; McNamara, Brian; Mehdipour, Missagh; Miller, Eric; Miller, Jon; Mineshige, Shin; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mori, Hideyuki; Mori, Koji; Moseley, Harvey; Mukai, Koji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Murakami, Toshio; Mushotzky, Richard; Nagino, Ryo; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Takeshi; Nakano, Toshio; Nakashima, Shinya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Noda, Hirofumi; Nomachi, Masaharu; ODell, Steve; Odaka, Hirokazu; Ohashi, Takaya; Ohno, Masanori; Okajima, Takashi; Ota, Naomi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Paerels, Frits; Paltani, Stephane; Parmar, Arvind; Petre, Robert; Pinto, Ciro; Pohl, Martin; Porter, F. Scott; Pottschmidt, Katja; Ramsey, Brian; Reynolds, Christopher; Russell, Helen; Safi-Harb, Samar; Saito, Shinya; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Sato, Goro; Sato, Kosuke; Sato, Rie; Sawada, Makoto; Schartel, Norbert; Serlemitsos, Peter; Seta, Hiromi; Shidatsu, Megumi; Simionescu, Aurora; Smith, Randall; Soong, Yang; Stawarz, Lukasz; Sugawara, Yasuharu; Sugita, Satoshi; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Takeda, Shinichiro; Takei, Yoh; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamura, Keisuke; Tamura, Takayuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Tashiro, Makoto; Tawara, Yuzuru; Terada, Yukikatsu; Terashima, Yuichi; Tombesi, Francesco; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yohko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Takeshi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Hideki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Ueda, Shutaro; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Shiro; Uno, Shinichiro; Urry, Meg; Ursino, Eugenio; De Vries, Cor; Watanabe, Shin; Werner, Norbert; Wik, Daniel; Wilkins, Dan; Williams, Brian; Yamada, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Yaqoob, Tahir; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Yuasa, Takayuki; Zhuravleva, Irina; Zoghbi, Abderahmen.

    In: Nature, Vol. 535, No. 7610, 06.07.2016, p. 117-121.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Aharonian, F, Akamatsu, H, Akimoto, F, Allen, SW, Anabuki, N, Angelini, L, Arnaud, K, Audard, M, Awaki, H, Axelsson, M, Bamba, A, Bautz, M, Blandford, R, Brenneman, L, Brown, GV, Bulbul, E, Cackett, E, Chernyakova, M, Chiao, M, Coppi, P, Costantini, E, De Plaa, J, Den Herder, JW, Done, C, Dotani, T, Ebisawa, K, Eckart, M, Enoto, T, Ezoe, Y, Fabian, AC, Ferrigno, C, Foster, A, Fujimoto, R, Fukazawa, Y, Furuzawa, A, Galeazzi, M, Gallo, L, Gandhi, P, Giustini, M, Goldwurm, A, Gu, L, Guainazzi, M, Haba, Y, Hagino, K, Hamaguchi, K, Harrus, I, Hatsukade, I, Hayashi, K, Hayashi, T, Hayashida, K, Hiraga, J, Hornschemeier, A, Hoshino, A, Hughes, J, Iizuka, R, Inoue, H, Inoue, Y, Ishibashi, K, Ishida, M, Ishikawa, K, Ishisaki, Y, Itoh, M, Iyomoto, N, Kaastra, J, Kallman, T, Kamae, T, Kara, E, Kataoka, J, Katsuda, S, Katsuta, J, Kawaharada, M, Kawai, N, Kelley, R, Khangulyan, D, Kilbourne, C, King, A, Kitaguchi, T, Kitamoto, S, Kitayama, T, Kohmura, T, Kokubun, M, Koyama, S, Koyama, K, Kretschmar, P, Krimm, H, Kubota, A, Kunieda, H, Laurent, P, Lebrun, F, Lee, SH, Leutenegger, M, Limousin, O, Loewenstein, M, Long, KS, Lumb, D, Madejski, G, Maeda, Y, Maier, D, Makishima, K, Markevitch, M, Matsumoto, H, Matsushita, K, McCammon, D, McNamara, B, Mehdipour, M, Miller, E, Miller, J, Mineshige, S, Mitsuda, K, Mitsuishi, I, Miyazawa, T, Mizuno, T, Mori, H, Mori, K, Moseley, H, Mukai, K, Murakami, H, Murakami, T, Mushotzky, R, Nagino, R, Nakagawa, T, Nakajima, H, Nakamori, T, Nakano, T, Nakashima, S, Nakazawa, K, Nobukawa, M, Noda, H, Nomachi, M, ODell, S, Odaka, H, Ohashi, T, Ohno, M, Okajima, T, Ota, N, Ozaki, M, Paerels, F, Paltani, S, Parmar, A, Petre, R, Pinto, C, Pohl, M, Porter, FS, Pottschmidt, K, Ramsey, B, Reynolds, C, Russell, H, Safi-Harb, S, Saito, S, Sakai, K, Sameshima, H, Sato, G, Sato, K, Sato, R, Sawada, M, Schartel, N, Serlemitsos, P, Seta, H, Shidatsu, M, Simionescu, A, Smith, R, Soong, Y, Stawarz, L, Sugawara, Y, Sugita, S, Szymkowiak, A, Tajima, H, Takahashi, H, Takahashi, T, Takeda, S, Takei, Y, Tamagawa, T, Tamura, K, Tamura, T, Tanaka, T, Tanaka, Y, Tanaka, Y, Tashiro, M, Tawara, Y, Terada, Y, Terashima, Y, Tombesi, F, Tomida, H, Tsuboi, Y, Tsujimoto, M, Tsunemi, H, Tsuru, T, Uchida, H, Uchiyama, H, Uchiyama, Y, Ueda, S, Ueda, Y, Ueno, S, Uno, S, Urry, M, Ursino, E, De Vries, C, Watanabe, S, Werner, N, Wik, D, Wilkins, D, Williams, B, Yamada, S, Yamaguchi, H, Yamaoka, K, Yamasaki, NY, Yamauchi, M, Yamauchi, S, Yaqoob, T, Yatsu, Y, Yonetoku, D, Yoshida, A, Yuasa, T, Zhuravleva, I & Zoghbi, A 2016, 'The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster', Nature, vol. 535, no. 7610, pp. 117-121. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature18627
    Aharonian F, Akamatsu H, Akimoto F, Allen SW, Anabuki N, Angelini L et al. The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster. Nature. 2016 Jul 6;535(7610):117-121. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature18627
    Aharonian, Felix ; Akamatsu, Hiroki ; Akimoto, Fumie ; Allen, Steven W. ; Anabuki, Naohisa ; Angelini, Lorella ; Arnaud, Keith ; Audard, Marc ; Awaki, Hisamitsu ; Axelsson, Magnus ; Bamba, Aya ; Bautz, Marshall ; Blandford, Roger ; Brenneman, Laura ; Brown, Gregory V. ; Bulbul, Esra ; Cackett, Edward ; Chernyakova, Maria ; Chiao, Meng ; Coppi, Paolo ; Costantini, Elisa ; De Plaa, Jelle ; Den Herder, Jan Willem ; Done, Chris ; Dotani, Tadayasu ; Ebisawa, Ken ; Eckart, Megan ; Enoto, Teruaki ; Ezoe, Yuichiro ; Fabian, Andrew C. ; Ferrigno, Carlo ; Foster, Adam ; Fujimoto, Ryuichi ; Fukazawa, Yasushi ; Furuzawa, Akihiro ; Galeazzi, Massimiliano ; Gallo, Luigi ; Gandhi, Poshak ; Giustini, Margherita ; Goldwurm, Andrea ; Gu, Liyi ; Guainazzi, Matteo ; Haba, Yoshito ; Hagino, Kouichi ; Hamaguchi, Kenji ; Harrus, Ilana ; Hatsukade, Isamu ; Hayashi, Katsuhiro ; Hayashi, Takayuki ; Hayashida, Kiyoshi ; Hiraga, Junko ; Hornschemeier, Ann ; Hoshino, Akio ; Hughes, John ; Iizuka, Ryo ; Inoue, Hajime ; Inoue, Yoshiyuki ; Ishibashi, Kazunori ; Ishida, Manabu ; Ishikawa, Kumi ; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka ; Itoh, Masayuki ; Iyomoto, Naoko ; Kaastra, Jelle ; Kallman, Timothy ; Kamae, Tuneyoshi ; Kara, Erin ; Kataoka, Jun ; Katsuda, Satoru ; Katsuta, Junichiro ; Kawaharada, Madoka ; Kawai, Nobuyuki ; Kelley, Richard ; Khangulyan, Dmitry ; Kilbourne, Caroline ; King, Ashley ; Kitaguchi, Takao ; Kitamoto, Shunji ; Kitayama, Tetsu ; Kohmura, Takayoshi ; Kokubun, Motohide ; Koyama, Shu ; Koyama, Katsuji ; Kretschmar, Peter ; Krimm, Hans ; Kubota, Aya ; Kunieda, Hideyo ; Laurent, Philippe ; Lebrun, François ; Lee, Shiu Hang ; Leutenegger, Maurice ; Limousin, Olivier ; Loewenstein, Michael ; Long, Knox S. ; Lumb, David ; Madejski, Grzegorz ; Maeda, Yoshitomo ; Maier, Daniel ; Makishima, Kazuo ; Markevitch, Maxim ; Matsumoto, Hironori ; Matsushita, Kyoko ; McCammon, Dan ; McNamara, Brian ; Mehdipour, Missagh ; Miller, Eric ; Miller, Jon ; Mineshige, Shin ; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa ; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki ; Miyazawa, Takuya ; Mizuno, Tsunefumi ; Mori, Hideyuki ; Mori, Koji ; Moseley, Harvey ; Mukai, Koji ; Murakami, Hiroshi ; Murakami, Toshio ; Mushotzky, Richard ; Nagino, Ryo ; Nakagawa, Takao ; Nakajima, Hiroshi ; Nakamori, Takeshi ; Nakano, Toshio ; Nakashima, Shinya ; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro ; Nobukawa, Masayoshi ; Noda, Hirofumi ; Nomachi, Masaharu ; ODell, Steve ; Odaka, Hirokazu ; Ohashi, Takaya ; Ohno, Masanori ; Okajima, Takashi ; Ota, Naomi ; Ozaki, Masanobu ; Paerels, Frits ; Paltani, Stephane ; Parmar, Arvind ; Petre, Robert ; Pinto, Ciro ; Pohl, Martin ; Porter, F. Scott ; Pottschmidt, Katja ; Ramsey, Brian ; Reynolds, Christopher ; Russell, Helen ; Safi-Harb, Samar ; Saito, Shinya ; Sakai, Kazuhiro ; Sameshima, Hiroaki ; Sato, Goro ; Sato, Kosuke ; Sato, Rie ; Sawada, Makoto ; Schartel, Norbert ; Serlemitsos, Peter ; Seta, Hiromi ; Shidatsu, Megumi ; Simionescu, Aurora ; Smith, Randall ; Soong, Yang ; Stawarz, Lukasz ; Sugawara, Yasuharu ; Sugita, Satoshi ; Szymkowiak, Andrew ; Tajima, Hiroyasu ; Takahashi, Hiromitsu ; Takahashi, Tadayuki ; Takeda, Shinichiro ; Takei, Yoh ; Tamagawa, Toru ; Tamura, Keisuke ; Tamura, Takayuki ; Tanaka, Takaaki ; Tanaka, Yasuo ; Tanaka, Yasuyuki ; Tashiro, Makoto ; Tawara, Yuzuru ; Terada, Yukikatsu ; Terashima, Yuichi ; Tombesi, Francesco ; Tomida, Hiroshi ; Tsuboi, Yohko ; Tsujimoto, Masahiro ; Tsunemi, Hiroshi ; Tsuru, Takeshi ; Uchida, Hiroyuki ; Uchiyama, Hideki ; Uchiyama, Yasunobu ; Ueda, Shutaro ; Ueda, Yoshihiro ; Ueno, Shiro ; Uno, Shinichiro ; Urry, Meg ; Ursino, Eugenio ; De Vries, Cor ; Watanabe, Shin ; Werner, Norbert ; Wik, Daniel ; Wilkins, Dan ; Williams, Brian ; Yamada, Shinya ; Yamaguchi, Hiroya ; Yamaoka, Kazutaka ; Yamasaki, Noriko Y. ; Yamauchi, Makoto ; Yamauchi, Shigeo ; Yaqoob, Tahir ; Yatsu, Yoichi ; Yonetoku, Daisuke ; Yoshida, Atsumasa ; Yuasa, Takayuki ; Zhuravleva, Irina ; Zoghbi, Abderahmen. / The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster. In: Nature. 2016 ; Vol. 535, No. 7610. pp. 117-121.
    @article{fe97d28f33a04ba6b43355b3026b7460,
    title = "The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster",
    abstract = "Clusters of galaxies are the most massive gravitationally bound objects in the Universe and are still forming. They are thus important probes of cosmological parameters and many astrophysical processes. However, knowledge of the dynamics of the pervasive hot gas, the mass of which is much larger than the combined mass of all the stars in the cluster, is lacking. Such knowledge would enable insights into the injection of mechanical energy by the central supermassive black hole and the use of hydrostatic equilibrium for determining cluster masses. X-rays from the core of the Perseus cluster are emitted by the 50-million-kelvin diffuse hot plasma filling its gravitational potential well. The active galactic nucleus of the central galaxy NGC 1275 is pumping jetted energy into the surrounding intracluster medium, creating buoyant bubbles filled with relativistic plasma. These bubbles probably induce motions in the intracluster medium and heat the inner gas, preventing runaway radiative cooling - a process known as active galactic nucleus feedback. Here we report X-ray observations of the core of the Perseus cluster, which reveal a remarkably quiescent atmosphere in which the gas has a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of 164 ± 10 kilometres per second in the region 30-60 kiloparsecs from the central nucleus. A gradient in the line-of-sight velocity of 150 ± 70 kilometres per second is found across the 60-kiloparsec image of the cluster core. Turbulent pressure support in the gas is four per cent of the thermodynamic pressure, with large-scale shear at most doubling this estimate. We infer that a total cluster mass determined from hydrostatic equilibrium in a central region would require little correction for turbulent pressure.",
    author = "Felix Aharonian and Hiroki Akamatsu and Fumie Akimoto and Allen, {Steven W.} and Naohisa Anabuki and Lorella Angelini and Keith Arnaud and Marc Audard and Hisamitsu Awaki and Magnus Axelsson and Aya Bamba and Marshall Bautz and Roger Blandford and Laura Brenneman and Brown, {Gregory V.} and Esra Bulbul and Edward Cackett and Maria Chernyakova and Meng Chiao and Paolo Coppi and Elisa Costantini and {De Plaa}, Jelle and {Den Herder}, {Jan Willem} and Chris Done and Tadayasu Dotani and Ken Ebisawa and Megan Eckart and Teruaki Enoto and Yuichiro Ezoe and Fabian, {Andrew C.} and Carlo Ferrigno and Adam Foster and Ryuichi Fujimoto and Yasushi Fukazawa and Akihiro Furuzawa and Massimiliano Galeazzi and Luigi Gallo and Poshak Gandhi and Margherita Giustini and Andrea Goldwurm and Liyi Gu and Matteo Guainazzi and Yoshito Haba and Kouichi Hagino and Kenji Hamaguchi and Ilana Harrus and Isamu Hatsukade and Katsuhiro Hayashi and Takayuki Hayashi and Kiyoshi Hayashida and Junko Hiraga and Ann Hornschemeier and Akio Hoshino and John Hughes and Ryo Iizuka and Hajime Inoue and Yoshiyuki Inoue and Kazunori Ishibashi and Manabu Ishida and Kumi Ishikawa and Yoshitaka Ishisaki and Masayuki Itoh and Naoko Iyomoto and Jelle Kaastra and Timothy Kallman and Tuneyoshi Kamae and Erin Kara and Jun Kataoka and Satoru Katsuda and Junichiro Katsuta and Madoka Kawaharada and Nobuyuki Kawai and Richard Kelley and Dmitry Khangulyan and Caroline Kilbourne and Ashley King and Takao Kitaguchi and Shunji Kitamoto and Tetsu Kitayama and Takayoshi Kohmura and Motohide Kokubun and Shu Koyama and Katsuji Koyama and Peter Kretschmar and Hans Krimm and Aya Kubota and Hideyo Kunieda and Philippe Laurent and Fran{\cc}ois Lebrun and Lee, {Shiu Hang} and Maurice Leutenegger and Olivier Limousin and Michael Loewenstein and Long, {Knox S.} and David Lumb and Grzegorz Madejski and Yoshitomo Maeda and Daniel Maier and Kazuo Makishima and Maxim Markevitch and Hironori Matsumoto and Kyoko Matsushita and Dan McCammon and Brian McNamara and Missagh Mehdipour and Eric Miller and Jon Miller and Shin Mineshige and Kazuhisa Mitsuda and Ikuyuki Mitsuishi and Takuya Miyazawa and Tsunefumi Mizuno and Hideyuki Mori and Koji Mori and Harvey Moseley and Koji Mukai and Hiroshi Murakami and Toshio Murakami and Richard Mushotzky and Ryo Nagino and Takao Nakagawa and Hiroshi Nakajima and Takeshi Nakamori and Toshio Nakano and Shinya Nakashima and Kazuhiro Nakazawa and Masayoshi Nobukawa and Hirofumi Noda and Masaharu Nomachi and Steve ODell and Hirokazu Odaka and Takaya Ohashi and Masanori Ohno and Takashi Okajima and Naomi Ota and Masanobu Ozaki and Frits Paerels and Stephane Paltani and Arvind Parmar and Robert Petre and Ciro Pinto and Martin Pohl and Porter, {F. Scott} and Katja Pottschmidt and Brian Ramsey and Christopher Reynolds and Helen Russell and Samar Safi-Harb and Shinya Saito and Kazuhiro Sakai and Hiroaki Sameshima and Goro Sato and Kosuke Sato and Rie Sato and Makoto Sawada and Norbert Schartel and Peter Serlemitsos and Hiromi Seta and Megumi Shidatsu and Aurora Simionescu and Randall Smith and Yang Soong and Lukasz Stawarz and Yasuharu Sugawara and Satoshi Sugita and Andrew Szymkowiak and Hiroyasu Tajima and Hiromitsu Takahashi and Tadayuki Takahashi and Shinichiro Takeda and Yoh Takei and Toru Tamagawa and Keisuke Tamura and Takayuki Tamura and Takaaki Tanaka and Yasuo Tanaka and Yasuyuki Tanaka and Makoto Tashiro and Yuzuru Tawara and Yukikatsu Terada and Yuichi Terashima and Francesco Tombesi and Hiroshi Tomida and Yohko Tsuboi and Masahiro Tsujimoto and Hiroshi Tsunemi and Takeshi Tsuru and Hiroyuki Uchida and Hideki Uchiyama and Yasunobu Uchiyama and Shutaro Ueda and Yoshihiro Ueda and Shiro Ueno and Shinichiro Uno and Meg Urry and Eugenio Ursino and {De Vries}, Cor and Shin Watanabe and Norbert Werner and Daniel Wik and Dan Wilkins and Brian Williams and Shinya Yamada and Hiroya Yamaguchi and Kazutaka Yamaoka and Yamasaki, {Noriko Y.} and Makoto Yamauchi and Shigeo Yamauchi and Tahir Yaqoob and Yoichi Yatsu and Daisuke Yonetoku and Atsumasa Yoshida and Takayuki Yuasa and Irina Zhuravleva and Abderahmen Zoghbi",
    year = "2016",
    month = "7",
    day = "6",
    doi = "10.1038/nature18627",
    language = "English",
    volume = "535",
    pages = "117--121",
    journal = "Nature",
    issn = "0028-0836",
    publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
    number = "7610",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster

    AU - Aharonian, Felix

    AU - Akamatsu, Hiroki

    AU - Akimoto, Fumie

    AU - Allen, Steven W.

    AU - Anabuki, Naohisa

    AU - Angelini, Lorella

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    AU - Guainazzi, Matteo

    AU - Haba, Yoshito

    AU - Hagino, Kouichi

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    AU - Harrus, Ilana

    AU - Hatsukade, Isamu

    AU - Hayashi, Katsuhiro

    AU - Hayashi, Takayuki

    AU - Hayashida, Kiyoshi

    AU - Hiraga, Junko

    AU - Hornschemeier, Ann

    AU - Hoshino, Akio

    AU - Hughes, John

    AU - Iizuka, Ryo

    AU - Inoue, Hajime

    AU - Inoue, Yoshiyuki

    AU - Ishibashi, Kazunori

    AU - Ishida, Manabu

    AU - Ishikawa, Kumi

    AU - Ishisaki, Yoshitaka

    AU - Itoh, Masayuki

    AU - Iyomoto, Naoko

    AU - Kaastra, Jelle

    AU - Kallman, Timothy

    AU - Kamae, Tuneyoshi

    AU - Kara, Erin

    AU - Kataoka, Jun

    AU - Katsuda, Satoru

    AU - Katsuta, Junichiro

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    AU - Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    AU - Tsuru, Takeshi

    AU - Uchida, Hiroyuki

    AU - Uchiyama, Hideki

    AU - Uchiyama, Yasunobu

    AU - Ueda, Shutaro

    AU - Ueda, Yoshihiro

    AU - Ueno, Shiro

    AU - Uno, Shinichiro

    AU - Urry, Meg

    AU - Ursino, Eugenio

    AU - De Vries, Cor

    AU - Watanabe, Shin

    AU - Werner, Norbert

    AU - Wik, Daniel

    AU - Wilkins, Dan

    AU - Williams, Brian

    AU - Yamada, Shinya

    AU - Yamaguchi, Hiroya

    AU - Yamaoka, Kazutaka

    AU - Yamasaki, Noriko Y.

    AU - Yamauchi, Makoto

    AU - Yamauchi, Shigeo

    AU - Yaqoob, Tahir

    AU - Yatsu, Yoichi

    AU - Yonetoku, Daisuke

    AU - Yoshida, Atsumasa

    AU - Yuasa, Takayuki

    AU - Zhuravleva, Irina

    AU - Zoghbi, Abderahmen

    PY - 2016/7/6

    Y1 - 2016/7/6

    N2 - Clusters of galaxies are the most massive gravitationally bound objects in the Universe and are still forming. They are thus important probes of cosmological parameters and many astrophysical processes. However, knowledge of the dynamics of the pervasive hot gas, the mass of which is much larger than the combined mass of all the stars in the cluster, is lacking. Such knowledge would enable insights into the injection of mechanical energy by the central supermassive black hole and the use of hydrostatic equilibrium for determining cluster masses. X-rays from the core of the Perseus cluster are emitted by the 50-million-kelvin diffuse hot plasma filling its gravitational potential well. The active galactic nucleus of the central galaxy NGC 1275 is pumping jetted energy into the surrounding intracluster medium, creating buoyant bubbles filled with relativistic plasma. These bubbles probably induce motions in the intracluster medium and heat the inner gas, preventing runaway radiative cooling - a process known as active galactic nucleus feedback. Here we report X-ray observations of the core of the Perseus cluster, which reveal a remarkably quiescent atmosphere in which the gas has a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of 164 ± 10 kilometres per second in the region 30-60 kiloparsecs from the central nucleus. A gradient in the line-of-sight velocity of 150 ± 70 kilometres per second is found across the 60-kiloparsec image of the cluster core. Turbulent pressure support in the gas is four per cent of the thermodynamic pressure, with large-scale shear at most doubling this estimate. We infer that a total cluster mass determined from hydrostatic equilibrium in a central region would require little correction for turbulent pressure.

    AB - Clusters of galaxies are the most massive gravitationally bound objects in the Universe and are still forming. They are thus important probes of cosmological parameters and many astrophysical processes. However, knowledge of the dynamics of the pervasive hot gas, the mass of which is much larger than the combined mass of all the stars in the cluster, is lacking. Such knowledge would enable insights into the injection of mechanical energy by the central supermassive black hole and the use of hydrostatic equilibrium for determining cluster masses. X-rays from the core of the Perseus cluster are emitted by the 50-million-kelvin diffuse hot plasma filling its gravitational potential well. The active galactic nucleus of the central galaxy NGC 1275 is pumping jetted energy into the surrounding intracluster medium, creating buoyant bubbles filled with relativistic plasma. These bubbles probably induce motions in the intracluster medium and heat the inner gas, preventing runaway radiative cooling - a process known as active galactic nucleus feedback. Here we report X-ray observations of the core of the Perseus cluster, which reveal a remarkably quiescent atmosphere in which the gas has a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of 164 ± 10 kilometres per second in the region 30-60 kiloparsecs from the central nucleus. A gradient in the line-of-sight velocity of 150 ± 70 kilometres per second is found across the 60-kiloparsec image of the cluster core. Turbulent pressure support in the gas is four per cent of the thermodynamic pressure, with large-scale shear at most doubling this estimate. We infer that a total cluster mass determined from hydrostatic equilibrium in a central region would require little correction for turbulent pressure.

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84978393058&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84978393058&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1038/nature18627

    DO - 10.1038/nature18627

    M3 - Article

    AN - SCOPUS:84978393058

    VL - 535

    SP - 117

    EP - 121

    JO - Nature

    JF - Nature

    SN - 0028-0836

    IS - 7610

    ER -