The spectral energy distribution of fermi bright blazars

A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, I. Agudo, M. Ajello, H. D. Aller, M. F. Aller, E. Angelakis, A. A. Arkharov, M. Axelsson, U. Bach, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B. M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, E. Benitez, A. Berdyugin, B. BerenjiR. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, M. Boettcher, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T. H. Burnett, D. Burrows, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, L. Calzoletti, R. A. Cameron, M. Capalbi, P. A. Caraveo, D. Carosati, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö Çelik, E. Charles, S. Chaty, A. Chekhtman, W. P. Chen, J. Chiang, G. Chincarini, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Colafrancesco, L. R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, R. Deitrick, V. D'Elia, C. D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S. W. Digel, I. Donnarumma, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dultzin, D. Dumora, A. Falcone, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, W. B. Focke, E. Forné, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, L. Fuhrmann, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, J. L. Gómez, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, A. Giuliani, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, C. Gronwall, J. E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, M. A. Gurwell, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A. K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, S. E. Healey, J. Heidt, D. Hiriart, D. Horan, E. A. Hoversten, R. E. Hughes, R. Itoh, M. S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, S. G. Jorstad, M. Kadler, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, Jun Kataoka, N. Kawai, J. Kennea, M. Kerr, G. Kimeridze, J. Knödlseder, M. L. Kocian, E. N. Kopatskaya, E. Koptelova, T. S. Konstantinova, Y. Y. Kovalev, Yu A. Kovalev, O. M. Kurtanidze, M. Kuss, J. Lande, V. M. Larionov, L. Latronico, P. Leto, E. Lindfors, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G. M. Madejski, A. Makeev, P. Marchegiani, A. P. Marscher, F. Marshall, W. Max-Moerbeck, M. N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J. E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, I. Nestoras, K. Nilsson, N. A. Nizhelsky, P. L. Nolan, J. P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, R. Ojha, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, J. Osborne, M. Ozaki, L. Pacciani, P. Padovani, C. Pagani, K. Page, D. Paneque, J. H. Panetta, D. Parent, M. Pasanen, V. Pavlidou, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Perri, M. Pesce-Rollins, S. Piranomonte, F. Piron, C. Pittori, T. A. Porter, S. Puccetti, F. Rahoui, S. Rainò, C. Raiteri, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, J. L. Richards, S. Ritz, L. S. Rochester, A. Y. Rodriguez, R. W. Romani, J. A. Ros, M. Roth, P. Roustazadeh, F. Ryde, H. F W Sadrozinski, A. Sadun, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P. M Saz Parkinson, J. D. Scargle, A. Sellerholm, C. Sgrò, M. S. Shaw, L. A. Sigua, E. J. Siskind, D. A. Smith, P. D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, J. L. Starck, M. Stevenson, G. Stratta, M. S. Strickman, D. J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, L. O. Takalo, T. Tanaka, J. B. Thayer, J. G. Thayer, D. J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D. F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T. L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, F. Verrecchia, N. Vilchez, M. Villata, V. Vitale, A. P. Waite, P. Wang, B. L. Winer, K. S. Wood, T. Ylinen, J. A. Zensus, G. V. Zhekanis, M. Ziegler

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    439 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broadband spectral properties of the γ-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi γ-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical, and other hard X-ray/γ-ray data, collected within 3 months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars. The SED of these γ-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual log ν-log ν Fν representation, the typical broadband spectral signatures normally attributed to a combination of low-energy synchrotron radiation followed by inverse Compton emission of one or more components. We have used these SED to characterize the peak intensity of both the low- and the high-energy components. The results have been used to derive empirical relationships that estimate the position of the two peaks from the broadband colors (i.e., the radio to optical, αro, and optical to X-ray, αox, spectral slopes) and from the γ-ray spectral index. Our data show that the synchrotron peak frequency (νS peak) is positioned between 1012.5 and 1014.5 Hz in broad-lined flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and between 10 13 and 1017 Hz in featureless BL Lacertae objects. We find that the γ-ray spectral slope is strongly correlated with the synchrotron peak energy and with the X-ray spectral index, as expected at first order in synchrotron-inverse Compton scenarios. However, simple homogeneous, one-zone, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models cannot explain most of our SED, especially in the case of FSRQs and low energy peaked (LBL) BL Lacs. More complex models involving external Compton radiation or multiple SSC components are required to reproduce the overall SED and the observed spectral variability. While more than 50% of known radio bright high energy peaked (HBL) BL Lacs are detected in the LBAS sample, only less than 13% of known bright FSRQs and LBL BL Lacs are included. This suggests that the latter sources, as a class, may be much fainter γ-ray emitters than LBAS blazars, and could in fact radiate close to the expectations of simple SSC models. We categorized all our sources according to a new physical classification scheme based on the generally accepted paradigm for Active Galactic Nuclei and on the results of this SED study. Since the LAT detector is more sensitive to flat spectrum γ-ray sources, the correlation between νS peak and γ-ray spectral index strongly favors the detection of high energy peaked blazars, thus explaining the Fermi overabundance of this type of sources compared to radio and EGRET samples. This selection effect is similar to that experienced in the soft X-ray band where HBL BL Lacs are the dominant type of blazars.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)30-70
    Number of pages41
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume716
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

    Fingerprint

    blazars
    spectral energy distribution
    rays
    synchrotrons
    energy
    radio spectra
    radio
    quasars
    broadband
    x rays
    slopes
    BL Lacertae objects
    distribution
    spectral signatures
    active galactic nuclei
    synchrotron radiation
    emitters
    color
    detectors

    Keywords

    • BL Lacertae objects: general
    • Galaxies: active
    • Gamma rays: galaxies
    • Quasars: general
    • Radiation mechanisms: non-thermal

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Space and Planetary Science
    • Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Cite this

    Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Agudo, I., Ajello, M., Aller, H. D., Aller, M. F., ... Ziegler, M. (2010). The spectral energy distribution of fermi bright blazars. Astrophysical Journal, 716(1), 30-70. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/30

    The spectral energy distribution of fermi bright blazars. / Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Agudo, I.; Ajello, M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Arkharov, A. A.; Axelsson, M.; Bach, U.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Benitez, E.; Berdyugin, A.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Boettcher, M.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Burrows, D.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Calzoletti, L.; Cameron, R. A.; Capalbi, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carosati, D.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, W. P.; Chiang, J.; Chincarini, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Costamante, L.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; Deitrick, R.; D'Elia, V.; Dermer, C. D.; De Angelis, A.; De Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Donnarumma, I.; Silva, E. Do Couto E; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dultzin, D.; Dumora, D.; Falcone, A.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Forné, E.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gómez, J. L.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giuliani, A.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Gronwall, C.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Heidt, J.; Hiriart, D.; Horan, D.; Hoversten, E. A.; Hughes, R. E.; Itoh, R.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Jorstad, S. G.; Kadler, M.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, Jun; Kawai, N.; Kennea, J.; Kerr, M.; Kimeridze, G.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocian, M. L.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Koptelova, E.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kovalev, Yu A.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larionov, V. M.; Latronico, L.; Leto, P.; Lindfors, E.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Marchegiani, P.; Marscher, A. P.; Marshall, F.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nestoras, I.; Nilsson, K.; Nizhelsky, N. A.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Ojha, R.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Osborne, J.; Ozaki, M.; Pacciani, L.; Padovani, P.; Pagani, C.; Page, K.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pasanen, M.; Pavlidou, V.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Perri, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piranomonte, S.; Piron, F.; Pittori, C.; Porter, T. A.; Puccetti, S.; Rahoui, F.; Rainò, S.; Raiteri, C.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Richards, J. L.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Romani, R. W.; Ros, J. A.; Roth, M.; Roustazadeh, P.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F W; Sadun, A.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Parkinson, P. M Saz; Scargle, J. D.; Sellerholm, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Sigua, L. A.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Starck, J. L.; Stevenson, M.; Stratta, G.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Takalo, L. O.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vasileiou, V.; Verrecchia, F.; Vilchez, N.; Villata, M.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Zensus, J. A.; Zhekanis, G. V.; Ziegler, M.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 716, No. 1, 2010, p. 30-70.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abdo, AA, Ackermann, M, Agudo, I, Ajello, M, Aller, HD, Aller, MF, Angelakis, E, Arkharov, AA, Axelsson, M, Bach, U, Baldini, L, Ballet, J, Barbiellini, G, Bastieri, D, Baughman, BM, Bechtol, K, Bellazzini, R, Benitez, E, Berdyugin, A, Berenji, B, Blandford, RD, Bloom, ED, Boettcher, M, Bonamente, E, Borgland, AW, Bregeon, J, Brez, A, Brigida, M, Bruel, P, Burnett, TH, Burrows, D, Buson, S, Caliandro, GA, Calzoletti, L, Cameron, RA, Capalbi, M, Caraveo, PA, Carosati, D, Casandjian, JM, Cavazzuti, E, Cecchi, C, Çelik, Ö, Charles, E, Chaty, S, Chekhtman, A, Chen, WP, Chiang, J, Chincarini, G, Ciprini, S, Claus, R, Cohen-Tanugi, J, Colafrancesco, S, Cominsky, LR, Conrad, J, Costamante, L, Cutini, S, D'Ammando, F, Deitrick, R, D'Elia, V, Dermer, CD, De Angelis, A, De Palma, F, Digel, SW, Donnarumma, I, Silva, EDCE, Drell, PS, Dubois, R, Dultzin, D, Dumora, D, Falcone, A, Farnier, C, Favuzzi, C, Fegan, SJ, Focke, WB, Forné, E, Fortin, P, Frailis, M, Fuhrmann, L, Fukazawa, Y, Funk, S, Fusco, P, Gómez, JL, Gargano, F, Gasparrini, D, Gehrels, N, Germani, S, Giebels, B, Giglietto, N, Giommi, P, Giordano, F, Giuliani, A, Glanzman, T, Godfrey, G, Grenier, IA, Gronwall, C, Grove, JE, Guillemot, L, Guiriec, S, Gurwell, MA, Hadasch, D, Hanabata, Y, Harding, AK, Hayashida, M, Hays, E, Healey, SE, Heidt, J, Hiriart, D, Horan, D, Hoversten, EA, Hughes, RE, Itoh, R, Jackson, MS, Jóhannesson, G, Johnson, AS, Johnson, WN, Jorstad, SG, Kadler, M, Kamae, T, Katagiri, H, Kataoka, J, Kawai, N, Kennea, J, Kerr, M, Kimeridze, G, Knödlseder, J, Kocian, ML, Kopatskaya, EN, Koptelova, E, Konstantinova, TS, Kovalev, YY, Kovalev, YA, Kurtanidze, OM, Kuss, M, Lande, J, Larionov, VM, Latronico, L, Leto, P, Lindfors, E, Longo, F, Loparco, F, Lott, B, Lovellette, MN, Lubrano, P, Madejski, GM, Makeev, A, Marchegiani, P, Marscher, AP, Marshall, F, Max-Moerbeck, W, Mazziotta, MN, McConville, W, McEnery, JE, Meurer, C, Michelson, PF, Mitthumsiri, W, Mizuno, T, Moiseev, AA, Monte, C, Monzani, ME, Morselli, A, Moskalenko, IV, Murgia, S, Nestoras, I, Nilsson, K, Nizhelsky, NA, Nolan, PL, Norris, JP, Nuss, E, Ohsugi, T, Ojha, R, Omodei, N, Orlando, E, Ormes, JF, Osborne, J, Ozaki, M, Pacciani, L, Padovani, P, Pagani, C, Page, K, Paneque, D, Panetta, JH, Parent, D, Pasanen, M, Pavlidou, V, Pelassa, V, Pepe, M, Perri, M, Pesce-Rollins, M, Piranomonte, S, Piron, F, Pittori, C, Porter, TA, Puccetti, S, Rahoui, F, Rainò, S, Raiteri, C, Rando, R, Razzano, M, Reimer, A, Reimer, O, Reposeur, T, Richards, JL, Ritz, S, Rochester, LS, Rodriguez, AY, Romani, RW, Ros, JA, Roth, M, Roustazadeh, P, Ryde, F, Sadrozinski, HFW, Sadun, A, Sanchez, D, Sander, A, Parkinson, PMS, Scargle, JD, Sellerholm, A, Sgrò, C, Shaw, MS, Sigua, LA, Siskind, EJ, Smith, DA, Smith, PD, Spandre, G, Spinelli, P, Starck, JL, Stevenson, M, Stratta, G, Strickman, MS, Suson, DJ, Tajima, H, Takahashi, H, Takahashi, T, Takalo, LO, Tanaka, T, Thayer, JB, Thayer, JG, Thompson, DJ, Tibaldo, L, Torres, DF, Tosti, G, Tramacere, A, Uchiyama, Y, Usher, TL, Vasileiou, V, Verrecchia, F, Vilchez, N, Villata, M, Vitale, V, Waite, AP, Wang, P, Winer, BL, Wood, KS, Ylinen, T, Zensus, JA, Zhekanis, GV & Ziegler, M 2010, 'The spectral energy distribution of fermi bright blazars', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 716, no. 1, pp. 30-70. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/30
    Abdo AA, Ackermann M, Agudo I, Ajello M, Aller HD, Aller MF et al. The spectral energy distribution of fermi bright blazars. Astrophysical Journal. 2010;716(1):30-70. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/30
    Abdo, A. A. ; Ackermann, M. ; Agudo, I. ; Ajello, M. ; Aller, H. D. ; Aller, M. F. ; Angelakis, E. ; Arkharov, A. A. ; Axelsson, M. ; Bach, U. ; Baldini, L. ; Ballet, J. ; Barbiellini, G. ; Bastieri, D. ; Baughman, B. M. ; Bechtol, K. ; Bellazzini, R. ; Benitez, E. ; Berdyugin, A. ; Berenji, B. ; Blandford, R. D. ; Bloom, E. D. ; Boettcher, M. ; Bonamente, E. ; Borgland, A. W. ; Bregeon, J. ; Brez, A. ; Brigida, M. ; Bruel, P. ; Burnett, T. H. ; Burrows, D. ; Buson, S. ; Caliandro, G. A. ; Calzoletti, L. ; Cameron, R. A. ; Capalbi, M. ; Caraveo, P. A. ; Carosati, D. ; Casandjian, J. M. ; Cavazzuti, E. ; Cecchi, C. ; Çelik, Ö ; Charles, E. ; Chaty, S. ; Chekhtman, A. ; Chen, W. P. ; Chiang, J. ; Chincarini, G. ; Ciprini, S. ; Claus, R. ; Cohen-Tanugi, J. ; Colafrancesco, S. ; Cominsky, L. R. ; Conrad, J. ; Costamante, L. ; Cutini, S. ; D'Ammando, F. ; Deitrick, R. ; D'Elia, V. ; Dermer, C. D. ; De Angelis, A. ; De Palma, F. ; Digel, S. W. ; Donnarumma, I. ; Silva, E. Do Couto E ; Drell, P. S. ; Dubois, R. ; Dultzin, D. ; Dumora, D. ; Falcone, A. ; Farnier, C. ; Favuzzi, C. ; Fegan, S. J. ; Focke, W. B. ; Forné, E. ; Fortin, P. ; Frailis, M. ; Fuhrmann, L. ; Fukazawa, Y. ; Funk, S. ; Fusco, P. ; Gómez, J. L. ; Gargano, F. ; Gasparrini, D. ; Gehrels, N. ; Germani, S. ; Giebels, B. ; Giglietto, N. ; Giommi, P. ; Giordano, F. ; Giuliani, A. ; Glanzman, T. ; Godfrey, G. ; Grenier, I. A. ; Gronwall, C. ; Grove, J. E. ; Guillemot, L. ; Guiriec, S. ; Gurwell, M. A. ; Hadasch, D. ; Hanabata, Y. ; Harding, A. K. ; Hayashida, M. ; Hays, E. ; Healey, S. E. ; Heidt, J. ; Hiriart, D. ; Horan, D. ; Hoversten, E. A. ; Hughes, R. E. ; Itoh, R. ; Jackson, M. S. ; Jóhannesson, G. ; Johnson, A. S. ; Johnson, W. N. ; Jorstad, S. G. ; Kadler, M. ; Kamae, T. ; Katagiri, H. ; Kataoka, Jun ; Kawai, N. ; Kennea, J. ; Kerr, M. ; Kimeridze, G. ; Knödlseder, J. ; Kocian, M. L. ; Kopatskaya, E. N. ; Koptelova, E. ; Konstantinova, T. S. ; Kovalev, Y. Y. ; Kovalev, Yu A. ; Kurtanidze, O. M. ; Kuss, M. ; Lande, J. ; Larionov, V. M. ; Latronico, L. ; Leto, P. ; Lindfors, E. ; Longo, F. ; Loparco, F. ; Lott, B. ; Lovellette, M. N. ; Lubrano, P. ; Madejski, G. M. ; Makeev, A. ; Marchegiani, P. ; Marscher, A. P. ; Marshall, F. ; Max-Moerbeck, W. ; Mazziotta, M. N. ; McConville, W. ; McEnery, J. E. ; Meurer, C. ; Michelson, P. F. ; Mitthumsiri, W. ; Mizuno, T. ; Moiseev, A. A. ; Monte, C. ; Monzani, M. E. ; Morselli, A. ; Moskalenko, I. V. ; Murgia, S. ; Nestoras, I. ; Nilsson, K. ; Nizhelsky, N. A. ; Nolan, P. L. ; Norris, J. P. ; Nuss, E. ; Ohsugi, T. ; Ojha, R. ; Omodei, N. ; Orlando, E. ; Ormes, J. F. ; Osborne, J. ; Ozaki, M. ; Pacciani, L. ; Padovani, P. ; Pagani, C. ; Page, K. ; Paneque, D. ; Panetta, J. H. ; Parent, D. ; Pasanen, M. ; Pavlidou, V. ; Pelassa, V. ; Pepe, M. ; Perri, M. ; Pesce-Rollins, M. ; Piranomonte, S. ; Piron, F. ; Pittori, C. ; Porter, T. A. ; Puccetti, S. ; Rahoui, F. ; Rainò, S. ; Raiteri, C. ; Rando, R. ; Razzano, M. ; Reimer, A. ; Reimer, O. ; Reposeur, T. ; Richards, J. L. ; Ritz, S. ; Rochester, L. S. ; Rodriguez, A. Y. ; Romani, R. W. ; Ros, J. A. ; Roth, M. ; Roustazadeh, P. ; Ryde, F. ; Sadrozinski, H. F W ; Sadun, A. ; Sanchez, D. ; Sander, A. ; Parkinson, P. M Saz ; Scargle, J. D. ; Sellerholm, A. ; Sgrò, C. ; Shaw, M. S. ; Sigua, L. A. ; Siskind, E. J. ; Smith, D. A. ; Smith, P. D. ; Spandre, G. ; Spinelli, P. ; Starck, J. L. ; Stevenson, M. ; Stratta, G. ; Strickman, M. S. ; Suson, D. J. ; Tajima, H. ; Takahashi, H. ; Takahashi, T. ; Takalo, L. O. ; Tanaka, T. ; Thayer, J. B. ; Thayer, J. G. ; Thompson, D. J. ; Tibaldo, L. ; Torres, D. F. ; Tosti, G. ; Tramacere, A. ; Uchiyama, Y. ; Usher, T. L. ; Vasileiou, V. ; Verrecchia, F. ; Vilchez, N. ; Villata, M. ; Vitale, V. ; Waite, A. P. ; Wang, P. ; Winer, B. L. ; Wood, K. S. ; Ylinen, T. ; Zensus, J. A. ; Zhekanis, G. V. ; Ziegler, M. / The spectral energy distribution of fermi bright blazars. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2010 ; Vol. 716, No. 1. pp. 30-70.
    @article{80a74c8f9b194684bebeb357bfa1d913,
    title = "The spectral energy distribution of fermi bright blazars",
    abstract = "We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broadband spectral properties of the γ-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi γ-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical, and other hard X-ray/γ-ray data, collected within 3 months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars. The SED of these γ-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual log ν-log ν Fν representation, the typical broadband spectral signatures normally attributed to a combination of low-energy synchrotron radiation followed by inverse Compton emission of one or more components. We have used these SED to characterize the peak intensity of both the low- and the high-energy components. The results have been used to derive empirical relationships that estimate the position of the two peaks from the broadband colors (i.e., the radio to optical, αro, and optical to X-ray, αox, spectral slopes) and from the γ-ray spectral index. Our data show that the synchrotron peak frequency (νS peak) is positioned between 1012.5 and 1014.5 Hz in broad-lined flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and between 10 13 and 1017 Hz in featureless BL Lacertae objects. We find that the γ-ray spectral slope is strongly correlated with the synchrotron peak energy and with the X-ray spectral index, as expected at first order in synchrotron-inverse Compton scenarios. However, simple homogeneous, one-zone, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models cannot explain most of our SED, especially in the case of FSRQs and low energy peaked (LBL) BL Lacs. More complex models involving external Compton radiation or multiple SSC components are required to reproduce the overall SED and the observed spectral variability. While more than 50{\%} of known radio bright high energy peaked (HBL) BL Lacs are detected in the LBAS sample, only less than 13{\%} of known bright FSRQs and LBL BL Lacs are included. This suggests that the latter sources, as a class, may be much fainter γ-ray emitters than LBAS blazars, and could in fact radiate close to the expectations of simple SSC models. We categorized all our sources according to a new physical classification scheme based on the generally accepted paradigm for Active Galactic Nuclei and on the results of this SED study. Since the LAT detector is more sensitive to flat spectrum γ-ray sources, the correlation between νS peak and γ-ray spectral index strongly favors the detection of high energy peaked blazars, thus explaining the Fermi overabundance of this type of sources compared to radio and EGRET samples. This selection effect is similar to that experienced in the soft X-ray band where HBL BL Lacs are the dominant type of blazars.",
    keywords = "BL Lacertae objects: general, Galaxies: active, Gamma rays: galaxies, Quasars: general, Radiation mechanisms: non-thermal",
    author = "Abdo, {A. A.} and M. Ackermann and I. Agudo and M. Ajello and Aller, {H. D.} and Aller, {M. F.} and E. Angelakis and Arkharov, {A. A.} and M. Axelsson and U. Bach and L. Baldini and J. Ballet and G. Barbiellini and D. Bastieri and Baughman, {B. M.} and K. Bechtol and R. Bellazzini and E. Benitez and A. Berdyugin and B. Berenji and Blandford, {R. D.} and Bloom, {E. D.} and M. Boettcher and E. Bonamente and Borgland, {A. W.} and J. Bregeon and A. Brez and M. Brigida and P. Bruel and Burnett, {T. H.} and D. Burrows and S. Buson and Caliandro, {G. A.} and L. Calzoletti and Cameron, {R. A.} and M. Capalbi and Caraveo, {P. A.} and D. Carosati and Casandjian, {J. M.} and E. Cavazzuti and C. Cecchi and {\"O} {\cC}elik and E. Charles and S. Chaty and A. Chekhtman and Chen, {W. P.} and J. Chiang and G. Chincarini and S. Ciprini and R. Claus and J. Cohen-Tanugi and S. Colafrancesco and Cominsky, {L. R.} and J. Conrad and L. Costamante and S. Cutini and F. D'Ammando and R. Deitrick and V. D'Elia and Dermer, {C. D.} and {De Angelis}, A. and {De Palma}, F. and Digel, {S. W.} and I. Donnarumma and Silva, {E. Do Couto E} and Drell, {P. S.} and R. Dubois and D. Dultzin and D. Dumora and A. Falcone and C. Farnier and C. Favuzzi and Fegan, {S. J.} and Focke, {W. B.} and E. Forn{\'e} and P. Fortin and M. Frailis and L. Fuhrmann and Y. Fukazawa and S. Funk and P. Fusco and G{\'o}mez, {J. L.} and F. Gargano and D. Gasparrini and N. Gehrels and S. Germani and B. Giebels and N. Giglietto and P. Giommi and F. Giordano and A. Giuliani and T. Glanzman and G. Godfrey and Grenier, {I. A.} and C. Gronwall and Grove, {J. E.} and L. Guillemot and S. Guiriec and Gurwell, {M. A.} and D. Hadasch and Y. Hanabata and Harding, {A. K.} and M. Hayashida and E. Hays and Healey, {S. E.} and J. Heidt and D. Hiriart and D. Horan and Hoversten, {E. A.} and Hughes, {R. E.} and R. Itoh and Jackson, {M. S.} and G. J{\'o}hannesson and Johnson, {A. S.} and Johnson, {W. N.} and Jorstad, {S. G.} and M. Kadler and T. Kamae and H. Katagiri and Jun Kataoka and N. Kawai and J. Kennea and M. Kerr and G. Kimeridze and J. Kn{\"o}dlseder and Kocian, {M. L.} and Kopatskaya, {E. N.} and E. Koptelova and Konstantinova, {T. S.} and Kovalev, {Y. Y.} and Kovalev, {Yu A.} and Kurtanidze, {O. M.} and M. Kuss and J. Lande and Larionov, {V. M.} and L. Latronico and P. Leto and E. Lindfors and F. Longo and F. Loparco and B. Lott and Lovellette, {M. N.} and P. Lubrano and Madejski, {G. M.} and A. Makeev and P. Marchegiani and Marscher, {A. P.} and F. Marshall and W. Max-Moerbeck and Mazziotta, {M. N.} and W. McConville and McEnery, {J. E.} and C. Meurer and Michelson, {P. F.} and W. Mitthumsiri and T. Mizuno and Moiseev, {A. A.} and C. Monte and Monzani, {M. E.} and A. Morselli and Moskalenko, {I. V.} and S. Murgia and I. Nestoras and K. Nilsson and Nizhelsky, {N. A.} and Nolan, {P. L.} and Norris, {J. P.} and E. Nuss and T. Ohsugi and R. Ojha and N. Omodei and E. Orlando and Ormes, {J. F.} and J. Osborne and M. Ozaki and L. Pacciani and P. Padovani and C. Pagani and K. Page and D. Paneque and Panetta, {J. H.} and D. Parent and M. Pasanen and V. Pavlidou and V. Pelassa and M. Pepe and M. Perri and M. Pesce-Rollins and S. Piranomonte and F. Piron and C. Pittori and Porter, {T. A.} and S. Puccetti and F. Rahoui and S. Rain{\`o} and C. Raiteri and R. Rando and M. Razzano and A. Reimer and O. Reimer and T. Reposeur and Richards, {J. L.} and S. Ritz and Rochester, {L. S.} and Rodriguez, {A. Y.} and Romani, {R. W.} and Ros, {J. A.} and M. Roth and P. Roustazadeh and F. Ryde and Sadrozinski, {H. F W} and A. Sadun and D. Sanchez and A. Sander and Parkinson, {P. M Saz} and Scargle, {J. D.} and A. Sellerholm and C. Sgr{\`o} and Shaw, {M. S.} and Sigua, {L. A.} and Siskind, {E. J.} and Smith, {D. A.} and Smith, {P. D.} and G. Spandre and P. Spinelli and Starck, {J. L.} and M. Stevenson and G. Stratta and Strickman, {M. S.} and Suson, {D. J.} and H. Tajima and H. Takahashi and T. Takahashi and Takalo, {L. O.} and T. Tanaka and Thayer, {J. B.} and Thayer, {J. G.} and Thompson, {D. J.} and L. Tibaldo and Torres, {D. F.} and G. Tosti and A. Tramacere and Y. Uchiyama and Usher, {T. L.} and V. Vasileiou and F. Verrecchia and N. Vilchez and M. Villata and V. Vitale and Waite, {A. P.} and P. Wang and Winer, {B. L.} and Wood, {K. S.} and T. Ylinen and Zensus, {J. A.} and Zhekanis, {G. V.} and M. Ziegler",
    year = "2010",
    doi = "10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/30",
    language = "English",
    volume = "716",
    pages = "30--70",
    journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
    issn = "0004-637X",
    publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
    number = "1",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The spectral energy distribution of fermi bright blazars

    AU - Abdo, A. A.

    AU - Ackermann, M.

    AU - Agudo, I.

    AU - Ajello, M.

    AU - Aller, H. D.

    AU - Aller, M. F.

    AU - Angelakis, E.

    AU - Arkharov, A. A.

    AU - Axelsson, M.

    AU - Bach, U.

    AU - Baldini, L.

    AU - Ballet, J.

    AU - Barbiellini, G.

    AU - Bastieri, D.

    AU - Baughman, B. M.

    AU - Bechtol, K.

    AU - Bellazzini, R.

    AU - Benitez, E.

    AU - Berdyugin, A.

    AU - Berenji, B.

    AU - Blandford, R. D.

    AU - Bloom, E. D.

    AU - Boettcher, M.

    AU - Bonamente, E.

    AU - Borgland, A. W.

    AU - Bregeon, J.

    AU - Brez, A.

    AU - Brigida, M.

    AU - Bruel, P.

    AU - Burnett, T. H.

    AU - Burrows, D.

    AU - Buson, S.

    AU - Caliandro, G. A.

    AU - Calzoletti, L.

    AU - Cameron, R. A.

    AU - Capalbi, M.

    AU - Caraveo, P. A.

    AU - Carosati, D.

    AU - Casandjian, J. M.

    AU - Cavazzuti, E.

    AU - Cecchi, C.

    AU - Çelik, Ö

    AU - Charles, E.

    AU - Chaty, S.

    AU - Chekhtman, A.

    AU - Chen, W. P.

    AU - Chiang, J.

    AU - Chincarini, G.

    AU - Ciprini, S.

    AU - Claus, R.

    AU - Cohen-Tanugi, J.

    AU - Colafrancesco, S.

    AU - Cominsky, L. R.

    AU - Conrad, J.

    AU - Costamante, L.

    AU - Cutini, S.

    AU - D'Ammando, F.

    AU - Deitrick, R.

    AU - D'Elia, V.

    AU - Dermer, C. D.

    AU - De Angelis, A.

    AU - De Palma, F.

    AU - Digel, S. W.

    AU - Donnarumma, I.

    AU - Silva, E. Do Couto E

    AU - Drell, P. S.

    AU - Dubois, R.

    AU - Dultzin, D.

    AU - Dumora, D.

    AU - Falcone, A.

    AU - Farnier, C.

    AU - Favuzzi, C.

    AU - Fegan, S. J.

    AU - Focke, W. B.

    AU - Forné, E.

    AU - Fortin, P.

    AU - Frailis, M.

    AU - Fuhrmann, L.

    AU - Fukazawa, Y.

    AU - Funk, S.

    AU - Fusco, P.

    AU - Gómez, J. L.

    AU - Gargano, F.

    AU - Gasparrini, D.

    AU - Gehrels, N.

    AU - Germani, S.

    AU - Giebels, B.

    AU - Giglietto, N.

    AU - Giommi, P.

    AU - Giordano, F.

    AU - Giuliani, A.

    AU - Glanzman, T.

    AU - Godfrey, G.

    AU - Grenier, I. A.

    AU - Gronwall, C.

    AU - Grove, J. E.

    AU - Guillemot, L.

    AU - Guiriec, S.

    AU - Gurwell, M. A.

    AU - Hadasch, D.

    AU - Hanabata, Y.

    AU - Harding, A. K.

    AU - Hayashida, M.

    AU - Hays, E.

    AU - Healey, S. E.

    AU - Heidt, J.

    AU - Hiriart, D.

    AU - Horan, D.

    AU - Hoversten, E. A.

    AU - Hughes, R. E.

    AU - Itoh, R.

    AU - Jackson, M. S.

    AU - Jóhannesson, G.

    AU - Johnson, A. S.

    AU - Johnson, W. N.

    AU - Jorstad, S. G.

    AU - Kadler, M.

    AU - Kamae, T.

    AU - Katagiri, H.

    AU - Kataoka, Jun

    AU - Kawai, N.

    AU - Kennea, J.

    AU - Kerr, M.

    AU - Kimeridze, G.

    AU - Knödlseder, J.

    AU - Kocian, M. L.

    AU - Kopatskaya, E. N.

    AU - Koptelova, E.

    AU - Konstantinova, T. S.

    AU - Kovalev, Y. Y.

    AU - Kovalev, Yu A.

    AU - Kurtanidze, O. M.

    AU - Kuss, M.

    AU - Lande, J.

    AU - Larionov, V. M.

    AU - Latronico, L.

    AU - Leto, P.

    AU - Lindfors, E.

    AU - Longo, F.

    AU - Loparco, F.

    AU - Lott, B.

    AU - Lovellette, M. N.

    AU - Lubrano, P.

    AU - Madejski, G. M.

    AU - Makeev, A.

    AU - Marchegiani, P.

    AU - Marscher, A. P.

    AU - Marshall, F.

    AU - Max-Moerbeck, W.

    AU - Mazziotta, M. N.

    AU - McConville, W.

    AU - McEnery, J. E.

    AU - Meurer, C.

    AU - Michelson, P. F.

    AU - Mitthumsiri, W.

    AU - Mizuno, T.

    AU - Moiseev, A. A.

    AU - Monte, C.

    AU - Monzani, M. E.

    AU - Morselli, A.

    AU - Moskalenko, I. V.

    AU - Murgia, S.

    AU - Nestoras, I.

    AU - Nilsson, K.

    AU - Nizhelsky, N. A.

    AU - Nolan, P. L.

    AU - Norris, J. P.

    AU - Nuss, E.

    AU - Ohsugi, T.

    AU - Ojha, R.

    AU - Omodei, N.

    AU - Orlando, E.

    AU - Ormes, J. F.

    AU - Osborne, J.

    AU - Ozaki, M.

    AU - Pacciani, L.

    AU - Padovani, P.

    AU - Pagani, C.

    AU - Page, K.

    AU - Paneque, D.

    AU - Panetta, J. H.

    AU - Parent, D.

    AU - Pasanen, M.

    AU - Pavlidou, V.

    AU - Pelassa, V.

    AU - Pepe, M.

    AU - Perri, M.

    AU - Pesce-Rollins, M.

    AU - Piranomonte, S.

    AU - Piron, F.

    AU - Pittori, C.

    AU - Porter, T. A.

    AU - Puccetti, S.

    AU - Rahoui, F.

    AU - Rainò, S.

    AU - Raiteri, C.

    AU - Rando, R.

    AU - Razzano, M.

    AU - Reimer, A.

    AU - Reimer, O.

    AU - Reposeur, T.

    AU - Richards, J. L.

    AU - Ritz, S.

    AU - Rochester, L. S.

    AU - Rodriguez, A. Y.

    AU - Romani, R. W.

    AU - Ros, J. A.

    AU - Roth, M.

    AU - Roustazadeh, P.

    AU - Ryde, F.

    AU - Sadrozinski, H. F W

    AU - Sadun, A.

    AU - Sanchez, D.

    AU - Sander, A.

    AU - Parkinson, P. M Saz

    AU - Scargle, J. D.

    AU - Sellerholm, A.

    AU - Sgrò, C.

    AU - Shaw, M. S.

    AU - Sigua, L. A.

    AU - Siskind, E. J.

    AU - Smith, D. A.

    AU - Smith, P. D.

    AU - Spandre, G.

    AU - Spinelli, P.

    AU - Starck, J. L.

    AU - Stevenson, M.

    AU - Stratta, G.

    AU - Strickman, M. S.

    AU - Suson, D. J.

    AU - Tajima, H.

    AU - Takahashi, H.

    AU - Takahashi, T.

    AU - Takalo, L. O.

    AU - Tanaka, T.

    AU - Thayer, J. B.

    AU - Thayer, J. G.

    AU - Thompson, D. J.

    AU - Tibaldo, L.

    AU - Torres, D. F.

    AU - Tosti, G.

    AU - Tramacere, A.

    AU - Uchiyama, Y.

    AU - Usher, T. L.

    AU - Vasileiou, V.

    AU - Verrecchia, F.

    AU - Vilchez, N.

    AU - Villata, M.

    AU - Vitale, V.

    AU - Waite, A. P.

    AU - Wang, P.

    AU - Winer, B. L.

    AU - Wood, K. S.

    AU - Ylinen, T.

    AU - Zensus, J. A.

    AU - Zhekanis, G. V.

    AU - Ziegler, M.

    PY - 2010

    Y1 - 2010

    N2 - We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broadband spectral properties of the γ-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi γ-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical, and other hard X-ray/γ-ray data, collected within 3 months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars. The SED of these γ-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual log ν-log ν Fν representation, the typical broadband spectral signatures normally attributed to a combination of low-energy synchrotron radiation followed by inverse Compton emission of one or more components. We have used these SED to characterize the peak intensity of both the low- and the high-energy components. The results have been used to derive empirical relationships that estimate the position of the two peaks from the broadband colors (i.e., the radio to optical, αro, and optical to X-ray, αox, spectral slopes) and from the γ-ray spectral index. Our data show that the synchrotron peak frequency (νS peak) is positioned between 1012.5 and 1014.5 Hz in broad-lined flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and between 10 13 and 1017 Hz in featureless BL Lacertae objects. We find that the γ-ray spectral slope is strongly correlated with the synchrotron peak energy and with the X-ray spectral index, as expected at first order in synchrotron-inverse Compton scenarios. However, simple homogeneous, one-zone, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models cannot explain most of our SED, especially in the case of FSRQs and low energy peaked (LBL) BL Lacs. More complex models involving external Compton radiation or multiple SSC components are required to reproduce the overall SED and the observed spectral variability. While more than 50% of known radio bright high energy peaked (HBL) BL Lacs are detected in the LBAS sample, only less than 13% of known bright FSRQs and LBL BL Lacs are included. This suggests that the latter sources, as a class, may be much fainter γ-ray emitters than LBAS blazars, and could in fact radiate close to the expectations of simple SSC models. We categorized all our sources according to a new physical classification scheme based on the generally accepted paradigm for Active Galactic Nuclei and on the results of this SED study. Since the LAT detector is more sensitive to flat spectrum γ-ray sources, the correlation between νS peak and γ-ray spectral index strongly favors the detection of high energy peaked blazars, thus explaining the Fermi overabundance of this type of sources compared to radio and EGRET samples. This selection effect is similar to that experienced in the soft X-ray band where HBL BL Lacs are the dominant type of blazars.

    AB - We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broadband spectral properties of the γ-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi γ-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical, and other hard X-ray/γ-ray data, collected within 3 months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars. The SED of these γ-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual log ν-log ν Fν representation, the typical broadband spectral signatures normally attributed to a combination of low-energy synchrotron radiation followed by inverse Compton emission of one or more components. We have used these SED to characterize the peak intensity of both the low- and the high-energy components. The results have been used to derive empirical relationships that estimate the position of the two peaks from the broadband colors (i.e., the radio to optical, αro, and optical to X-ray, αox, spectral slopes) and from the γ-ray spectral index. Our data show that the synchrotron peak frequency (νS peak) is positioned between 1012.5 and 1014.5 Hz in broad-lined flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and between 10 13 and 1017 Hz in featureless BL Lacertae objects. We find that the γ-ray spectral slope is strongly correlated with the synchrotron peak energy and with the X-ray spectral index, as expected at first order in synchrotron-inverse Compton scenarios. However, simple homogeneous, one-zone, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models cannot explain most of our SED, especially in the case of FSRQs and low energy peaked (LBL) BL Lacs. More complex models involving external Compton radiation or multiple SSC components are required to reproduce the overall SED and the observed spectral variability. While more than 50% of known radio bright high energy peaked (HBL) BL Lacs are detected in the LBAS sample, only less than 13% of known bright FSRQs and LBL BL Lacs are included. This suggests that the latter sources, as a class, may be much fainter γ-ray emitters than LBAS blazars, and could in fact radiate close to the expectations of simple SSC models. We categorized all our sources according to a new physical classification scheme based on the generally accepted paradigm for Active Galactic Nuclei and on the results of this SED study. Since the LAT detector is more sensitive to flat spectrum γ-ray sources, the correlation between νS peak and γ-ray spectral index strongly favors the detection of high energy peaked blazars, thus explaining the Fermi overabundance of this type of sources compared to radio and EGRET samples. This selection effect is similar to that experienced in the soft X-ray band where HBL BL Lacs are the dominant type of blazars.

    KW - BL Lacertae objects: general

    KW - Galaxies: active

    KW - Gamma rays: galaxies

    KW - Quasars: general

    KW - Radiation mechanisms: non-thermal

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77952931352&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77952931352&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/30

    DO - 10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/30

    M3 - Article

    AN - SCOPUS:77952931352

    VL - 716

    SP - 30

    EP - 70

    JO - Astrophysical Journal

    JF - Astrophysical Journal

    SN - 0004-637X

    IS - 1

    ER -