The spectrum and morphology of the Fermi bubbles

M. Ackermann, A. Albert, W. B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, R. Bellazzini, E. Bissaldi, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bottacini, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, M. CaragiuloP. A. Caraveo, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, G. Chiaro, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, S. W. Digel, L. Di Venere, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, C. Favuzzi, E. C. Ferrara, W. B. Focke, A. Franckowiak, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, G. Godfrey, G. A. Gomez-Vargas, I. A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, A. K. Harding, E. Hays, J. W. Hewitt, X. Hou, T. Jogler, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, Jun Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, D. Kocevski, M. Kuss, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, D. Malyshev, A. Manfreda, F. Massaro, M. Mayer, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, R. Nemmen, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, M. Orienti, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J. H. Panetta

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    179 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The Fermi bubbles are two large structures in the gamma-ray sky extending to 55° above and below the Galactic center. We analyze 50 months of Fermi Large Area Telescope data between 100 MeV and 500 GeV above 10° in Galactic latitude to derive the spectrum and morphology of the Fermi bubbles. We thoroughly explore the systematic uncertainties that arise when modeling the Galactic diffuse emission through two separate approaches. The gamma-ray spectrum is well described by either a log parabola or a power law with an exponential cutoff. We exclude a simple power law with more than 7σ significance. The power law with an exponential cutoff has an index of 1.9 ± 0.2 and a cutoff energy of 110 ± 50 GeV. We find that the gamma-ray luminosity of the bubbles is erg s-1. We confirm a significant enhancement of gamma-ray emission in the southeastern part of the bubbles, but we do not find significant evidence for a jet. No significant variation of the spectrum across the bubbles is detected. The width of the boundary of the bubbles is estimated to be deg. Both inverse Compton (IC) models and hadronic models including IC emission from secondary leptons fit the gamma-ray data well. In the IC scenario, synchrotron emission from the same population of electrons can also explain the WMAP and Planck microwave haze with a magnetic field between 5 and 20 μG.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number64
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume793
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014 Sep 20

    Fingerprint

    bubble
    bubbles
    gamma rays
    power law
    cut-off
    parabolas
    haze
    gamma ray spectra
    erg
    sky
    leptons
    synchrotrons
    luminosity
    telescopes
    magnetic field
    microwaves
    electron
    augmentation
    magnetic fields
    modeling

    Keywords

    • astroparticle physics
    • cosmic rays
    • Galaxy: general
    • Galaxy: halo
    • gamma rays: diffuse background
    • methods: data analysis

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Space and Planetary Science
    • Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Cite this

    Ackermann, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., ... Panetta, J. H. (2014). The spectrum and morphology of the Fermi bubbles. Astrophysical Journal, 793(1), [64]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/793/1/64

    The spectrum and morphology of the Fermi bubbles. / Ackermann, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J. W.; Hou, X.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, Jun; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Malyshev, D.; Manfreda, A.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 793, No. 1, 64, 20.09.2014.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Ackermann, M, Albert, A, Atwood, WB, Baldini, L, Ballet, J, Barbiellini, G, Bastieri, D, Bellazzini, R, Bissaldi, E, Blandford, RD, Bloom, ED, Bottacini, E, Brandt, TJ, Bregeon, J, Bruel, P, Buehler, R, Buson, S, Caliandro, GA, Cameron, RA, Caragiulo, M, Caraveo, PA, Cavazzuti, E, Cecchi, C, Charles, E, Chekhtman, A, Chiang, J, Chiaro, G, Ciprini, S, Claus, R, Cohen-Tanugi, J, Conrad, J, Cutini, S, D'Ammando, F, De Angelis, A, De Palma, F, Dermer, CD, Digel, SW, Di Venere, L, Do Couto E Silva, E, Drell, PS, Favuzzi, C, Ferrara, EC, Focke, WB, Franckowiak, A, Fukazawa, Y, Funk, S, Fusco, P, Gargano, F, Gasparrini, D, Germani, S, Giglietto, N, Giordano, F, Giroletti, M, Godfrey, G, Gomez-Vargas, GA, Grenier, IA, Guiriec, S, Hadasch, D, Harding, AK, Hays, E, Hewitt, JW, Hou, X, Jogler, T, Jóhannesson, G, Johnson, AS, Johnson, WN, Kamae, T, Kataoka, J, Knödlseder, J, Kocevski, D, Kuss, M, Larsson, S, Latronico, L, Longo, F, Loparco, F, Lovellette, MN, Lubrano, P, Malyshev, D, Manfreda, A, Massaro, F, Mayer, M, Mazziotta, MN, McEnery, JE, Michelson, PF, Mitthumsiri, W, Mizuno, T, Monzani, ME, Morselli, A, Moskalenko, IV, Murgia, S, Nemmen, R, Nuss, E, Ohsugi, T, Omodei, N, Orienti, M, Orlando, E, Ormes, JF, Paneque, D & Panetta, JH 2014, 'The spectrum and morphology of the Fermi bubbles', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 793, no. 1, 64. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/793/1/64
    Ackermann M, Albert A, Atwood WB, Baldini L, Ballet J, Barbiellini G et al. The spectrum and morphology of the Fermi bubbles. Astrophysical Journal. 2014 Sep 20;793(1). 64. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/793/1/64
    Ackermann, M. ; Albert, A. ; Atwood, W. B. ; Baldini, L. ; Ballet, J. ; Barbiellini, G. ; Bastieri, D. ; Bellazzini, R. ; Bissaldi, E. ; Blandford, R. D. ; Bloom, E. D. ; Bottacini, E. ; Brandt, T. J. ; Bregeon, J. ; Bruel, P. ; Buehler, R. ; Buson, S. ; Caliandro, G. A. ; Cameron, R. A. ; Caragiulo, M. ; Caraveo, P. A. ; Cavazzuti, E. ; Cecchi, C. ; Charles, E. ; Chekhtman, A. ; Chiang, J. ; Chiaro, G. ; Ciprini, S. ; Claus, R. ; Cohen-Tanugi, J. ; Conrad, J. ; Cutini, S. ; D'Ammando, F. ; De Angelis, A. ; De Palma, F. ; Dermer, C. D. ; Digel, S. W. ; Di Venere, L. ; Do Couto E Silva, E. ; Drell, P. S. ; Favuzzi, C. ; Ferrara, E. C. ; Focke, W. B. ; Franckowiak, A. ; Fukazawa, Y. ; Funk, S. ; Fusco, P. ; Gargano, F. ; Gasparrini, D. ; Germani, S. ; Giglietto, N. ; Giordano, F. ; Giroletti, M. ; Godfrey, G. ; Gomez-Vargas, G. A. ; Grenier, I. A. ; Guiriec, S. ; Hadasch, D. ; Harding, A. K. ; Hays, E. ; Hewitt, J. W. ; Hou, X. ; Jogler, T. ; Jóhannesson, G. ; Johnson, A. S. ; Johnson, W. N. ; Kamae, T. ; Kataoka, Jun ; Knödlseder, J. ; Kocevski, D. ; Kuss, M. ; Larsson, S. ; Latronico, L. ; Longo, F. ; Loparco, F. ; Lovellette, M. N. ; Lubrano, P. ; Malyshev, D. ; Manfreda, A. ; Massaro, F. ; Mayer, M. ; Mazziotta, M. N. ; McEnery, J. E. ; Michelson, P. F. ; Mitthumsiri, W. ; Mizuno, T. ; Monzani, M. E. ; Morselli, A. ; Moskalenko, I. V. ; Murgia, S. ; Nemmen, R. ; Nuss, E. ; Ohsugi, T. ; Omodei, N. ; Orienti, M. ; Orlando, E. ; Ormes, J. F. ; Paneque, D. ; Panetta, J. H. / The spectrum and morphology of the Fermi bubbles. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2014 ; Vol. 793, No. 1.
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    abstract = "The Fermi bubbles are two large structures in the gamma-ray sky extending to 55° above and below the Galactic center. We analyze 50 months of Fermi Large Area Telescope data between 100 MeV and 500 GeV above 10° in Galactic latitude to derive the spectrum and morphology of the Fermi bubbles. We thoroughly explore the systematic uncertainties that arise when modeling the Galactic diffuse emission through two separate approaches. The gamma-ray spectrum is well described by either a log parabola or a power law with an exponential cutoff. We exclude a simple power law with more than 7σ significance. The power law with an exponential cutoff has an index of 1.9 ± 0.2 and a cutoff energy of 110 ± 50 GeV. We find that the gamma-ray luminosity of the bubbles is erg s-1. We confirm a significant enhancement of gamma-ray emission in the southeastern part of the bubbles, but we do not find significant evidence for a jet. No significant variation of the spectrum across the bubbles is detected. The width of the boundary of the bubbles is estimated to be deg. Both inverse Compton (IC) models and hadronic models including IC emission from secondary leptons fit the gamma-ray data well. In the IC scenario, synchrotron emission from the same population of electrons can also explain the WMAP and Planck microwave haze with a magnetic field between 5 and 20 μG.",
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    AU - Ackermann, M.

    AU - Albert, A.

    AU - Atwood, W. B.

    AU - Baldini, L.

    AU - Ballet, J.

    AU - Barbiellini, G.

    AU - Bastieri, D.

    AU - Bellazzini, R.

    AU - Bissaldi, E.

    AU - Blandford, R. D.

    AU - Bloom, E. D.

    AU - Bottacini, E.

    AU - Brandt, T. J.

    AU - Bregeon, J.

    AU - Bruel, P.

    AU - Buehler, R.

    AU - Buson, S.

    AU - Caliandro, G. A.

    AU - Cameron, R. A.

    AU - Caragiulo, M.

    AU - Caraveo, P. A.

    AU - Cavazzuti, E.

    AU - Cecchi, C.

    AU - Charles, E.

    AU - Chekhtman, A.

    AU - Chiang, J.

    AU - Chiaro, G.

    AU - Ciprini, S.

    AU - Claus, R.

    AU - Cohen-Tanugi, J.

    AU - Conrad, J.

    AU - Cutini, S.

    AU - D'Ammando, F.

    AU - De Angelis, A.

    AU - De Palma, F.

    AU - Dermer, C. D.

    AU - Digel, S. W.

    AU - Di Venere, L.

    AU - Do Couto E Silva, E.

    AU - Drell, P. S.

    AU - Favuzzi, C.

    AU - Ferrara, E. C.

    AU - Focke, W. B.

    AU - Franckowiak, A.

    AU - Fukazawa, Y.

    AU - Funk, S.

    AU - Fusco, P.

    AU - Gargano, F.

    AU - Gasparrini, D.

    AU - Germani, S.

    AU - Giglietto, N.

    AU - Giordano, F.

    AU - Giroletti, M.

    AU - Godfrey, G.

    AU - Gomez-Vargas, G. A.

    AU - Grenier, I. A.

    AU - Guiriec, S.

    AU - Hadasch, D.

    AU - Harding, A. K.

    AU - Hays, E.

    AU - Hewitt, J. W.

    AU - Hou, X.

    AU - Jogler, T.

    AU - Jóhannesson, G.

    AU - Johnson, A. S.

    AU - Johnson, W. N.

    AU - Kamae, T.

    AU - Kataoka, Jun

    AU - Knödlseder, J.

    AU - Kocevski, D.

    AU - Kuss, M.

    AU - Larsson, S.

    AU - Latronico, L.

    AU - Longo, F.

    AU - Loparco, F.

    AU - Lovellette, M. N.

    AU - Lubrano, P.

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    AU - Manfreda, A.

    AU - Massaro, F.

    AU - Mayer, M.

    AU - Mazziotta, M. N.

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    AU - Mizuno, T.

    AU - Monzani, M. E.

    AU - Morselli, A.

    AU - Moskalenko, I. V.

    AU - Murgia, S.

    AU - Nemmen, R.

    AU - Nuss, E.

    AU - Ohsugi, T.

    AU - Omodei, N.

    AU - Orienti, M.

    AU - Orlando, E.

    AU - Ormes, J. F.

    AU - Paneque, D.

    AU - Panetta, J. H.

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    N2 - The Fermi bubbles are two large structures in the gamma-ray sky extending to 55° above and below the Galactic center. We analyze 50 months of Fermi Large Area Telescope data between 100 MeV and 500 GeV above 10° in Galactic latitude to derive the spectrum and morphology of the Fermi bubbles. We thoroughly explore the systematic uncertainties that arise when modeling the Galactic diffuse emission through two separate approaches. The gamma-ray spectrum is well described by either a log parabola or a power law with an exponential cutoff. We exclude a simple power law with more than 7σ significance. The power law with an exponential cutoff has an index of 1.9 ± 0.2 and a cutoff energy of 110 ± 50 GeV. We find that the gamma-ray luminosity of the bubbles is erg s-1. We confirm a significant enhancement of gamma-ray emission in the southeastern part of the bubbles, but we do not find significant evidence for a jet. No significant variation of the spectrum across the bubbles is detected. The width of the boundary of the bubbles is estimated to be deg. Both inverse Compton (IC) models and hadronic models including IC emission from secondary leptons fit the gamma-ray data well. In the IC scenario, synchrotron emission from the same population of electrons can also explain the WMAP and Planck microwave haze with a magnetic field between 5 and 20 μG.

    AB - The Fermi bubbles are two large structures in the gamma-ray sky extending to 55° above and below the Galactic center. We analyze 50 months of Fermi Large Area Telescope data between 100 MeV and 500 GeV above 10° in Galactic latitude to derive the spectrum and morphology of the Fermi bubbles. We thoroughly explore the systematic uncertainties that arise when modeling the Galactic diffuse emission through two separate approaches. The gamma-ray spectrum is well described by either a log parabola or a power law with an exponential cutoff. We exclude a simple power law with more than 7σ significance. The power law with an exponential cutoff has an index of 1.9 ± 0.2 and a cutoff energy of 110 ± 50 GeV. We find that the gamma-ray luminosity of the bubbles is erg s-1. We confirm a significant enhancement of gamma-ray emission in the southeastern part of the bubbles, but we do not find significant evidence for a jet. No significant variation of the spectrum across the bubbles is detected. The width of the boundary of the bubbles is estimated to be deg. Both inverse Compton (IC) models and hadronic models including IC emission from secondary leptons fit the gamma-ray data well. In the IC scenario, synchrotron emission from the same population of electrons can also explain the WMAP and Planck microwave haze with a magnetic field between 5 and 20 μG.

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    KW - cosmic rays

    KW - Galaxy: general

    KW - Galaxy: halo

    KW - gamma rays: diffuse background

    KW - methods: data analysis

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