Thermodynamics and quantum field theory

I. Hardman, H. Umezawa, Y. Yamanaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)


We describe the thermal change of a quantum field system using thermo field dynamics, an operator quantum theory. With this it is straightforward to discuss the change in thermal energy which we relate to thermodynamics. The fundamental concept is that it is necessary to recognize two sources of time dependence, one for the Heisenberg operators and one for the Heisenberg states; this is a radical departure from conventional quantum field theory and one that should find many applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)293-298
Number of pages6
JournalPhysics Letters A
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1990 Jun 4
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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