Thiazole-Based σ1 Receptor Ligands: Diversity by Late-Stage C−H Arylation of Thiazoles, Structure–Affinity and Selectivity Relationships, and Molecular Interactions

Artur K. Kokornaczyk, Dirk Schepmann, Junichiro Yamaguchi, Kenichiro Itami, Erik Laurini, Maurizio Fermeglia, Sabrina Pricl, Bernhard Wünsch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Spirocyclic thiophene derivatives represent promising σ1 ligands with high σ1 affinity and selectivity over the σ2 subtype. To increase ligand efficiency, the thiophene ring was replaced bioisosterically by a thiazole ring, and the pyran ring was opened. Late-stage diversification by regioselective C−H arylation of thiazoles 9 a–c resulted in a set of 53 compounds with high diversity. This set of compounds was analyzed with respect to σ1 affinity, σ12 selectivity, lipophilicity (logD7.4), lipophilicity-corrected ligand efficiency (LELP), and molecular target interactions. The most promising candidates were pyridyl-substituted thiazole derivatives 33 c (2-(1-benzyl-4-ethoxypiperidin-4-yl)-5-(pyridin-3-yl)thiazole) and 34 c (2-(1-benzyl-4-ethoxypiperidin-4-yl)-5-(pyridin-4-yl)thiazole), possessing low-nanomolar σ1 affinity (Ki=1.3 and 1.9 nm), high σ12 selectivity (>1500-fold), low lipophilicity (logD7.4=1.8) and very good ligand efficiency (LELP=5.5), indicating promising pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Molecular simulation studies, including docking and deconvolution of the free binding energy into its major components, led to decreased hydrophobic stabilization of pyridyl derivatives 33 c and 34 c, which was compensated by lower desolvation energy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1070-1080
Number of pages11
JournalChemMedChem
Volume12
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jul 6

Keywords

  • C−H arylation
  • molecular dynamics
  • structure–affinity relationships
  • thiazoles
  • σ receptors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Organic Chemistry

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