Three-dimensional computer-generated head model reconstructed from cephalograms, facial photographs, and dental cast models

Akihiko Nakasima, Masahiko Terajima, Noriko Mori, Yoshihiro Hoshino, Kenji Tokumori, Yoshimitu Aoki, Shuji Hashimoto

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    25 Citations (Scopus)


    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) computer models of the human craniofacial structure have been constructed with computed tomography (CT). However, the high cost of CT and the radiation exposure are drawbacks to this method. Attempts to create a 3D reconstruction from lateral and frontal cephalograms have failed because of problems with magnification, distortion, and limitations of landmark identification, among others. We introduce a new method that creates a standard head model for a patient from anatomic measurement points extracted from x-ray images, facial stereo photographs, and dental casts. Material: To obtain precise 3D coordinates from cephalograms, several equations were introduced to compensate for radiographic image magnification and distortion. Results: By comparing the constructed model and 3D-CT images, this method proved to be accurate. Conclusions: It is possible to produce a 3D head model on a personal computer and to view it from any desired angle; this will provide easy-to-understand information for patients and establish a diagnostic or therapeutic method for communication with other health care providers.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)282-292
    Number of pages11
    JournalAmerican Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2005 Mar


    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Dentistry(all)
    • Surgery

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