Trend of Autonomous Decentralized System technologies and their application in IC card ticket system

Kinji Mori*, Akio Shiibashi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


The advancement of technology is ensured by step-bystep innovation and its implementation into society. Autonomous Decentralized Systems (ADSs) have been growing since first proposed in 1977. Since then, the ADS technologies and their implementations have interacted with the evolving markets, sciences, and technologies. The ADS concept is proposed on biological analogy, and its technologies have been advanced according to changing and expanding requirements. These technologies are now categorized into six generations on the basis of requirements and system structures, but the ADS concept and its system architecture have not changed. The requirements for the system can be divided in operation-oriented, mass service-oriented, and personal service-oriented categories. Moreover, these technologies have been realized in homogeneous system structure and, as the next step, in heterogeneous system structure. These technologies have been widely applied in manufacturing, telecommunications, information provision/utilization, data centers, transportation, and so on. They have been operating successfully throughout the world. In particular, ADS technologies have been applied in Suica, the IC card ticket system (ICCTS) for fare collection and e-commerce. This system is not only expanding in size and functionality but also its components are being modified almost every day without stopping its operation. This system and its technologies are shown here. Finally, the future direction of ADS is discussed, and one of its technologies is presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)445-460
Number of pages16
JournalIEICE Transactions on Communications
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Feb
Externally publishedYes


  • Assurance
  • Autonomous Decentralized System
  • IC card ticket system
  • On-line property

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Software


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