Two pairs of tentacles and a pair of procerebra: Optimized functions and redundant structures in the sensory and central organs involved in olfactory learning of terrestrial pulmonates

Ryota Matsuo, Suguru Kobayashi, Miki Yamagishi, Etsuro Ito

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

19 Citations (Scopus)


Terrestrial pulmonates can learn olfactory-aversion tasks and retain them in their long-term memory. To elucidate the cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory, researchers have focused on both the peripheral and central components of olfaction: two pairs of tentacles (the superior and inferior tentacles) and a pair of procerebra, respectively. Data from tentacleamputation experiments showed that either pair of tentacles is sufficient for olfactory learning. Results of procerebrum lesion experiments showed that the procerebra are necessary for olfactory learning but that either one of the two procerebra, rather than both, is used for each olfactory learning event. Together, these data suggest that there is a redundancy in the structures of terrestrial pulmonates necessary for olfactory learning. In our commentary we exemplify and discuss functional optimization and structural redundancy in the sensory and central organs involved in olfactory learning and memory in terrestrial pulmonates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)879-886
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Experimental Biology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Mar
Externally publishedYes



  • Learning
  • Olfaction
  • Procerebrum
  • Pulmonate
  • Tentacle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Physiology
  • Insect Science
  • Aquatic Science

Cite this